Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study Technical Report No. 11: Terrestrial Ecology Portland General Electric Company April 1986 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Guidelines for Wind Energy and Wildlife Resource Management in Nebraska Nebraska Wind and Wildlife Working Group November 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Project-Specific Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Tule Reduced Ridgeline Wind Project Tule Wind March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Assessing and Analyzing Bat Activity with Acoustic Monitoring: Challenges and Interpretations Adams, A. July 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis for Siting of Small Wind Power Plants: A Case Study from Berlin Drews, L. January 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Policies and Measures for Protected Species in Wind Energy: An Assessment Between the U.S. and Germany Gartman, V. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimates of Bird Collision Mortality at Wind Facilities in the Contiguous United States of America Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Compensating White-Tailed Eagle Mortality at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant using Electrocution Prevention Measures Cole, S., Dahl, E. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Raptors
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Olivebranches and Idiot's Guides: Frameworks for Community Engagement in Australian Wind Farm Development Howard, T. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
How a Wind Turbine Works EWEA January 2013 Video Wind Energy (General)
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General)
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Feasibility off the California Central Coast Feinberg, L., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along the Atlantic Coast of the United States: Final Report (Database Selection - Shorebirds) O'Connell, A., Spiegel, C., Johnson, S. April 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Tradeoff Analysis of Energy Harvesting and Noise Emission for Distributed Wind Turbines Shaltout, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Nearfield Habitat
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Wind Technology Center, Louisville, CO Bat Conservation International, National Renewable Energy Laboratory August 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Environmental Assessment Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Office of Renewable Energy Programs December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Meeting the Quest for Spatial Efficiency: Progress and Prospects of Extensive Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms Buck, B., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Ornithology Technical Report for the proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm projects Burton, N., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
What Flight Heights Tell Us About Foraging and Potential Conflicts with Wind Farms: A Case Study in Lesser Black-Backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) Corman, A., Garthe, S. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2013 Corbetta, G., Pineda, I., Moccia, J. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bird Communities and Wind Farms: A Phylogenetic and Morphological Approach Herrera-Alsina, L., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds

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