Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ecological Effects of Electricity Generation, Storage and Use Henderson, P. May 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social & Economic Data
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change
Ecological Efficiency Assessment Model for Environmental Safety Management of Wind Power Plant Kasner, R., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Ecological Impact Assessments Fail to Reduce Risk of Bat Casualties at Wind Farms Lintott, P., et al. November 2016 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Ecological Monitoring using Wildlife Detection Dogs: Bat Carcass Searches at the Wanlip Wind Turbine Stanhope, K. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part B Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Ecosystem Based Modeling and Indication of Ecological Integrity in the German North Sea - Case Study Offshore Wind Parks Burkhard, B., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Fish
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Effect of Pile-Driving Playback Sound Level on Fish-Catching Efficiency in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Effect of Wind Turbine Proximity on Nesting Success in Shrub-nesting Birds Bennett, V., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Miao, R., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Effective Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Karl-Heinz, E. February 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of a wind farm installation on the understory bat community of a highly biodiverse tropical region in Mexico Briones-Salas, M., Lavariega, M., Moreno, C. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals Slabbekoorn, H., et al. August 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Noise
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF, Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Fish
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community Dunham, A., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Invertebrates
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of trust and public participation on acceptability of renewable energy projects in the Netherlands and China Liu, L., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat Erickson, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Langston, R., Pullan, J. November 2004 Book Wind Energy (General) Birds
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms on near-surface wind speed Xin, Z., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow
Effects of wind turbine noise on the surrounding soundscape in the context of greater-prairie chicken courtship vocalizations Whalen, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance: Systematic Review Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Spatial Distribution of the European Hamster Łopucki, R., Perzanowski, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Passerines
Effects of Wind-Energy Facilities on Breeding Grassland Bird Distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds

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