Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3005
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Developing and Applying a GIS-Assisted Approach to Evaluate Visual Impact in Wind Farms Molina-Ruiz, J., et al. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Developments in understanding of red-throated diver responses to offshore wind farms in marine Special Protection Areas Allen, S., et al. January 2020 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus Gorresen, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Marine Spatial Planning
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Distances Between Breeding Sites and White-Tailed Sea Eagles Found Dead Near Wind Turbines in Schleswig-Holstein Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Shorebirds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
Do Black-naped Hares Lepus nigricollis (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae) have synanthropic association with wind farms? Anoop, V., Arun, P., Jaypal, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Do human activity and infrastructure disturb domesticated reindeer? The need for the reindeer’s perspective Skarin, A., Åhman, B. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Terrestrial Mammals
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Do wind turbines impact plant community properties in mountain region? Pătru-Stupariu, I., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Eagles and Wind Energy: Identifying Research Priorities Allison, T. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Eco-Maintenance for Complex Systems: Application on System of Renewable Energy Production Tchertchian, N., Millet, D. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Ecological Baseline Studies for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Energy Project, Shasta County, California Young, D. Jr., et al. August 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Ecological Baseline Studies Report Proposed Dry Lake Wind Project, Navajo County, Arizona Young, D. Jr., Poulton, V., Bay, K. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ecological Effects of Electricity Generation, Storage and Use Henderson, P. May 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social & Economic Data
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change

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