Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Energy and Environmental Assessments - A Hard Look at Two Forerunners' Approaches: Germany and the United States Geißler, G., Köppel, J., Gunther, P. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions Köppel, J. January 2017 Book Wind Energy (General)
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities Kuvlesky, W. Jr., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Physical Environment
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Energy Development Specialist Report: Kiowa, Rita Blanca, Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands Plan Revision Environmental Impact Statement Hall, D. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines Letcher, T. May 2017 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General)
Wind energy in the city: An interurban comparison of social acceptance of wind energy projects Khorsand, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors Christ, M., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Human Dimensions, Navigation
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook Newton, D. November 2014 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns Tabassum-Abbasi, et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Wind energy: renewable energy and the environment Nelson, V., Starcher, K. January 2019 Book Wind Energy (General)
Wind energy: Trends and enabling technologies Kumar, Y., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Farm Construction Impacts Reindeer Migration and Movement Corridors Skarin, A., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind farm externalities and public preferences for community consultation in Ireland: A discrete choice experiments approach Brennan, N., Van Rensburg, T. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Farm Potential is Higher in Prime Habitat for Uncommon Soil Crust Lichens Root, H., McCune, M., McCune, B. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Wind farm repowering guided by visual impact criteria Manchado, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Wind farms - Where and how to place them? A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden Ek, K., Persson, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Wind Farms and Biodiversity: Improving Environmental Risk Assessments Boothroyd, I., Barea, L. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Wind farms have cascading impacts on ecosystems across trophic levels Thaker, M., Zambre, A., Bhosale, H. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Raptors
Wind farms in the Icelandic highlands: Attitudes of local residents and tourism service providers Ólafsdóttir, R., Sæþórsdóttir, A. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind farms, farmland occupation and compensation: Evidences from landowners’ preferences through a stated choice survey in Italy Sardaro, R., Faccilongo, N., Roselli, L. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy (General)
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation Factors Regarding Wind Energy Development, an International Perspective Gartman, V., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Power and Externalities Zerrahn, A. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden Lauf, T., et al. February 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind power gone bad: Critiquing wind power planning processes in northeastern Brazil Gorayeb, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General)
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy (General) Noise
Wind Turbine Noise and Sleep: Pilot Studies on the Influence of Noise Characteristics Morsing, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts

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