Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Impact of Wind Power Plants on Black Grouse, Lyrurus tetrix in Alpine Regions Zeiler, H., Grunschachner-Berger, V. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Impact of wind speed on the activity of bats - at the coast and inland Bach, P., Niermann, I., Bach, L. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Impact of Windfarm OWEZ on the Local Macrobenthos Community Daan, R., Mulder, M., Bergman, M. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Impact of Windmills and Power Lines on Birds: A Case Study at Porbandar Taluka, Gujarat-India Suthar, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Wildlife: Research Priorities for the Development of Standards and Mitigation Blickley, J., Patricelli, G. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Impacts of climate change on wind energy power – Four wind farms in Spain Solaun, K., Emilio, C. January 2020 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Impacts of Energy Development on Prairie Grouse Ecology: A Research Synthesis Hagen, C. March 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impacts of On-shore Wind Farms in Wildlife Communities: Direct Fatalities and Indirect Impacts (Behavioural and Habitat Effects) Pereira, P., Salgueiro, N., Mesquita, S. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Wildlife: Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Science, Management, and Policy Arnett, E. May 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds
Impacts of wind farms on land surface temperature Zhou, L., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment
Impacts of Wind Farms on Upland Habitats: The Environmental Cost of Scotland's Renewable Revolution The John Muir Trust January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Impacts of wind power infrastructure development on semi-domesticated reindeer and reindeer husbandry Skarin, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Impacts of wind turbines on redheads in the Laguna Madre Lange, C., Ballard, B., Collins, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in North Frisia Rasran, L., Thomsen, K. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Humans National Research Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Implementing hedonic pricing models for valuing the visual impact of wind farms in Greece Skenteris, K., Mirasgedis, S., Tourkolias, C. December 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Visual Impacts
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Importance of coastal area on bat migration at the western coast of Latvia – implication for localization of wind farms Petersons, G., Suba, J., Vintulis, V. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Bats
Improving Australia's Renewable Energy Project Policy and Planning: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis Martin, N., Rice, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Improving policies and regulations for environmental-friendly ocean renewable energy development in Korea Park, J., Kim, T. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
In Situ Mortality Experiments with Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Relation to Impulsive Sound Levels Caused by Pile Driving of Windmill Foundations Dubusschere, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea Baeye, M., Fettweis, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
In Sowing the Wind, How Ireland could Reap the Whirlwind - A Case Against Irish Wind Development(s) Barrett, E. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Incidence and Management of Live and Injured Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Klug, B., Baerwald, E. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Increasing Evidence that Bats Actively Forage at Wind Turbines Hale, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Indirect Effects of an Existing Wind Energy Facility on Lekking Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chickens Smith, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Individual or collective? Community investment, local taxes, and the social acceptance of wind energy in Switzerland Vuichard, P., Stauch, A., Dällenbach, N. December 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Individual preferences regarding environmental offset and welfare compensation: a choice experiment application to an offshore wind farm project Kermagoret, C., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Industrial Wind Turbine Post-Construction Bird and Bat Monitoring: A Policy Framework for Canada Parisé, J., Walker, T. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Influence of landscape and time of year on bat-wind turbines collision risks Roemer, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats, Birds, Invertebrates
Insect Prey Eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Prior to Fatal Collisions with Wind Turbines Valdez, E., Cryan, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Inshore-Offshore Comparison of Parasite Infestation in Mytilus edulis: Implications for Open Ocean Aquaculture Buck, B., et al. April 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Insufficient Sampling to Identify Species Affected by Turbine Collisions Beston, J., Diffendorfer, J., Loss, S. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Integrated Assessment of Coastal and Marine Changes Using the Example of Offshore Wind Farms: the Coastal Futures Approach Kannen, A., Burkhard, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Integrating applied ecology and planning policy: the case of micro-turbines and wildlife conservation Park, K., Turner, A., Minderman, J. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Integration of marine research results into a maritime spatial plan for Lithuania Mileriene, R., Blažauskas, N., Gulbinskas, S. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Integration of wave energy and other marine renewable energy sources with the needs of coastal societies Manasseh, R., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Interannual Home Range Variation, Territoriality and Overlap in Breeding Bonelli's Eagles (Aquila fasciata) Tracked by GPS Satellite Telemetry Perez-Garcia, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
International experiences with opposition to wind energy siting decisions: lessons for environmental and social appraisal Cashmore, M., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Interpreting failure to reject the null hypothesis of displacement from wind turbines in three species of grassland birds: Response to Johnson (2016) Hale, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Passerines
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Introduction: Wind-Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Investigating the Causes of Death for Wind Turbine-Associated Bat Fatalities Grodsky, S., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Investigating the Co-Existence of Fisheries and Offshore Renewable Energy in the UK: Identification of a Mitigation Agenda for Fishing Effort Displacement de Groot, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Investigation of existing post-construction mortality monitoring at Victorian wind farms to assess its utility in estimating mortality rates Moloney, P., Lumsden, L., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds

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