Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data Bellan, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Effect of Wind Turbine Proximity on Nesting Success in Shrub-nesting Birds Bennett, V., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bat Mortalities at a Wind Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Chronic Anthropogenic Noise on Abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at Leks Blickley, J., Blackwood, D., Patricelli, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Blickley, J., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Risks and Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity: Facts and Perceptions Bosley, P., Bosley, K. January 1992 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Post-Construction Avian Mortality Monitoring at Project West Wind Bull, L., Fuller, S., Sim, D. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Noctule Bats and Wind Turbines Burrows, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming Copeland, H., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Assessing the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on the Endangered Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia at San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Cruz-Delgado, F., Wiedenfeld, D., Gonzalez, J. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Wind turbines as landscape impediments to the migratory connectivity of bats Cryan, P. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Raptors
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Modelled Sensitivity of Avian Collision Rate at Wind Turbines Varies with Number of Hours of Flight Activity Input Data Douglas, D., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Female Agassizs Desert Tortoise Activity at a Wind Energy Facility in Southern California: The Influence of an El Nino Event Ennen, J., Meyer, K., Lovich, J. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities Erickson, W., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus Fraser, E., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in North-Eastern Greece Georgiakakis, P., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Cantabrian Capercaillie signs disappeared after a wind farm construction Gonzalez, M., Ena, V. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
A Group-Based Spatial Decision Support System for Wind Farm Site Selection in Northwest Ohio Gorsevski, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bat Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility in Southeastern Wisconsin Grodsky, S., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Red Aviation Lights on Wind Turbines do not Increase Bat-Turbine Collisions Hale, A., Bennett, V. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Lighting Bats
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities Hayes, M. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A Comment on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine-Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Huso, M., Erickson, W. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Is there Room for All of Us? Renewable Energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis Inman, R., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Bat Mortality and Activity at a Northern Iowa Wind Resource Area Jain, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Bat Mortality at a Wind Power Facility in Central Canada Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Bats
Seasonal and Geographic Trends in Acoustic Detection of Tree-Roosting Bats Johnson, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Net-Present Value Analysis for a Wind Turbine Purchase at a Small US College Johnson, N., Solomon, B. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Comparing the Ecological Impacts of Wind and Oil and Gas Development: A Landscape Scale Assessment Jones, N., Pejchar, L. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise

Pages

Subscribe to Wind Energy (General)
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Wind Energy (General)