Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
The Significance of Parameter Uncertainties for the Prediction of Offshore Pile Driving Noise Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Wang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding Bird Collisions at Wind Farms: An Updated Review on the Causes and Possible Mitigation Strategies Marques, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
A Biogeographic Assessment of Seabirds, Deep Sea Corals and Ocean Habitats of the New York Bight: Science to Support Offshore Spatial Planning Menza, C., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Spellman, F. December 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife Goodale, W., Milman, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Practical Management of Cumulative Anthropogenic Impacts with Working Marine Examples Wright, A., Kyhn, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Ecosystem Processes
Wind Energy: A Reference Handbook Newton, D. November 2014 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The New Noise Mitigation System 'Hydro Sound Dampers': History of Development with Several Hydro Sound and Vibration Measurements Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
New Achievements in Underwater Noise Modelling for Offshore Pile Driving Trimoreau, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Hydro Sound Measurements during the Installation of Large Diameter Offshore Piles using Combinations of Independent Noise Mitigation Systems Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Ultrasonic noise emissions from wind turbines: Potential effects on bat species Long, C., Lepper, P., Flint, J. July 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian detection & tracking algorithm using infrared imaging Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Visual Impact Assessment: There's More to it than Meets the Eye! Robotham, A., Quilleash, P., Hempstead, H. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
A Field Study on the Aesthetics of Small Wind Machines: A Preliminary Report Strojan, C., Lawrence, K., O'Donnell, D. January 1980 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Bat Conservation International August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Nest-Guarding by Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind-Energy Facility Near Palm Springs, California Agha, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Preliminary survey of avifauna around wind farm of Jangi region, Kutch District, Gujarat, India Ali, A., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Demography of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Unfragmented Grasslands in Kansas Augustine, J., Sandercock, B. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Prairie Winds: Migrating Bats & Wind Energy in Canada Baerwald, E. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds

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