Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2969
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Reindeer and windpower Skarin, A., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
The Costs of Chronic Noise Exposure for Terrestrial Organisms Barber, J., Crooks, K., Fristrup, K. March 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Noise
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Reducing Wind Curtailment through Transmission Expansion in a Wind Vision Future Jorgenson, J., Mai, T., Brinkman, G. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general Socio-Economics
Environmental implications of offshore energy Gill, A., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impacts of On-shore Wind Farms in Wildlife Communities: Direct Fatalities and Indirect Impacts (Behavioural and Habitat Effects) Pereira, P., Salgueiro, N., Mesquita, S. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: From Formula-Based Methods to Models to Assess Impact Significance Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Generic monitoring programme for monitoring watercourses in relation to onshore wind farm developments Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Scoping advice on information required in environmental impact assessment reports in relation to assessing risk to freshwater and diadromous fish and associated fisheries Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Fish, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fishing
Good practice during Wind Farm construction Scottish Renewables, et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas Thurstan, R., Yates, K., O'Leary, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Methods and utility of ecosystem service trade-off analysis for guiding marine planning of offshore energy Stevens, J., Lester, S., White, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Tracing regime shifts in the provision of coastal-marine cultural ecosystem services Gee, K., Burkhard, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine spatial planning and stakeholder collaboration Brooks, P., Jedele, T. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
The future of marine spatial planning Bradshaw, C., Greenhill, L., Yates, K. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Measuring sensitivity of two OSPAR indicators for a coastal food web model under offshore wind farm construction Raoux, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Wildlife: Research Priorities for the Development of Standards and Mitigation Blickley, J., Patricelli, G. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America McDonald, R., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Ecosystem
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Lighting, Noise
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-Economics, Navigation
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 1 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 2 US Department of Energy, et al. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement Na Pua Makani Wind Project and Habitat Conservation Plan Case, S., Tetra Tech Inc. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Impact Statement Hermanville/Clearspring - 30 MW Wind Farm AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Guidance for Commercial Wind Energy Projects Minnesota Department of Natural Resources July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-Economics, Fishing
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Maiden Wind Farm, Yakima and Benton Counties, Washington Young, D., et al. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-caused Bat and Bird Fatality: Final Report Drake, D., Schumacher, S., Sponsler, M. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-Caused Bat Mortality Drake, D., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Ecosystem
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-Economics
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-Economics
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Stakeholder Outcomes in a Wind Turbine Investment; Is the Irish Energy Policy Effective in Reducing GHG Emissions by Promoting Small-Scale Embedded Turbines in SME's? Kealy, T. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Climate Change, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Priorities in Wind Energy Lantz, E. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
An Investigation of the Wind Induced Background Sound Levels in Rural Areas for Existing and Proposed Wind Farms Bonsma, I., Munro, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Pre-Construction Impact Assessment of Wind Development on Bats: Grande Prairie Wind Project, Holt County, Nebraska Midwest Wind Energy, LLC. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Langston, R., Pullan, J. November 2004 Book Wind Energy general Birds
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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