Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Geographic Origins and Population Genetics of Bats Killed at Wind-Energy Facilities Pylant, C., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Characterization of the Ultrasonic Acoustic Field of a Wind Turbine Pereira, M., Fonseca, C., Inácio, O. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Bats
A Multi-Method Approach to Determine the Impact of Existing Wind Power Plants on Bird and Bat Migration on the Island of Fehmarn, Germany Reichenbach, M., Grunkorn, T. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Searcher Efficiency and Survey Coverage Affect Precision of Fatality Estimates Reyes, G., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Thirty Years of North American Wind Energy Acceptance Research: What have we Learned? Rand, J., Hoen, B. June 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessment of Avian Mortality from Collisions and Electrocutions Dorin, M., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bat Detection and Shutdown System for Utility-Scale Wind Turbines Sutter, C., Schumacher, S. July 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking Roeleke, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bat Activity at a Small Wind Turbine in the Baltic Sea Rydell, J., Wickman, A. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Appropriate assessment of plans and projects for Croatian National Ecological Network - utilization of bird and bat impact zonation in the southern coastal part of Croatia Schneider, D., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Factors influencing carcass removal at wind-farms, in mountain areas of the center-north region of Portugal Silva, B., Barreiro, S., Alves, P. August 2008 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Bats
A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal Silva, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Wildlife Impacts of and Public Attitudes Towards Small Wind Turbines Tatchley, C. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Ecological Monitoring using Wildlife Detection Dogs: Bat Carcass Searches at the Wanlip Wind Turbine Stanhope, K. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance Fish
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Mooring System Considerations for Renewable Energy Standards Cribbs, A., et al. May 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Hybrid Renewable Energy System with Minimum Noise Wind Turbine Al-Hamidi, H., Asfar, J. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy Zanuttigh, B., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance Bats, Birds
Developing High-Resolution Spatial Data of Migration Corridors for Avian Species of Concern in Regions of High Potential Wind Development Katzner, T. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Energy By Design: Science-Based Wind Energy Siting to Avoid Environmental Impact In the Continental United States Fargione, J. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife: A Vision to Facilitate Sustainable Development Kiesecker, J., et al. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Spatially-Explicit Bat Impact Screening Tool for Wind Turbine Siting Versar, Exponent October 2013 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bubble Curtains Attenuate Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction and Reduce Temporary Habitat Loss for Harbour Porpoises Dähne, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Application of Reanalysis Data to Estimate Offshore Wind Potential in EEZ of India Based on Marine Ecosystem Considerations Nagababu, G., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
How Green is 'Green' Energy? Gibson, L., Wilman, E., Laurance, W. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Wind Energy (General) Physical Environment
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Common Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) Two Years after Deployment - Increased Production Rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at the Proposed Hoosac Wind Energy Project, Massachusetts, 2006-2007 Hein, C., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 4th Science and All Committees Meeting: Final 2015 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2015 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 3rd Science and All Committees Meeting: 2012 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
The Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: Synthesis of Activities (2004-2011), Key Findings and Next Steps Arnett, E., Hein, C., Patterson, R. October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: 2008 Workshop Proceedings Energetics January 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Northeast Offshore Wind Regional Market Characterization: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind Grace, R., et al. October 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA AECOM July 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
White Pines Wind Project: Natural Heritage Assessment and Environmental Impact Study Stantec Consulting May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Monitoring the Environmental Effects of Construction and Initial Operation of the First Offshore Wind Farm in the US James Miller December 2017 Blog Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Factors Associated with Bat Mortality at Wind Energy Facilities in the United States Thompson, M., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
A Socio-Technical Framework for Examining the Consequences of Deforestation: A Case Study of Wind Project Development in Northern Europe Enevoldsen, P. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Land Trust Response to Renewable Energy Siting Challenges in New York Adkins, C. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Bat Diversity, Activity, and Habitat Use in a Mixed Disturbance Landscape Hollen, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
A Spatial Analysis for Ecologically Conscious Wind Farm Siting in the Pacific Northwest Moore, E. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Wind Power Project Development: Case Study in Latvia Antans, A. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Battered by harsh winds - must bats pay the price for wind energy? Tuttle, M. October 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
NedPower Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Factors Influencing Winter Mortality Risk for Pronghorn Exposed to Wind Energy Development Taylor, K., Beck, J., Huzurbazar, S. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds

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