Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2998
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Wide Reach of Migratory Bird Treaty Act for Energy Projects Rosen, J. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wildlife and Habitat Baseline Study for the Whiskey Ridge Wind Power Project, Kittitas County, Washington Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Wind Energy & the Threat to Bats Tuttle, M. July 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Wind Farm Construction Impacts Reindeer Migration and Movement Corridors Skarin, A., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Farms and Biodiversity: Improving Environmental Risk Assessments Boothroyd, I., Barea, L. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Wind Farms and Birds: Interim Standards For Risk Assessment Brett Lane & Associates, ARIA Professional Services July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General)
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Risk Assessment for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Navigation
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Responses of Male Greater Prairie-Chickens to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals
Environmental and Social Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy: Comparison with Onshore Counterpart Kaldellis, J., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Benefits and Disadvantages of Co-Locating Windfarms and Marine Conservation Zones, with a Focus on Commercial Fishing Blyth-Skyrme, R. March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Bats in Dutch Offshore Wind Farms in Autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Land-Dwelling Mammals Helldin, J., Skarin, A. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Bat and Bird Detection of the DTBat and DTBird Systems at Calandawind Turbine - Final Report Hanagasioglu, M., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Reducing the Collision Risk for Bats at Onshore Wind Turbines (RENEBAT II) Behr, O., et al. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Multiple Mortality Events in Bats: A Global Review O'Shea, T., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Large-Eddy Simulation of Offshore Wind Farm Yang, D., Meneveau, C., Shen, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Wind energy: Trends and enabling technologies Kumar, Y., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy (General) Birds
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, EMF Fish, Invertebrates
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Environmental Impact Assessment for Andmyran wind farm in Andøy, Nordland Bjerke, J., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Nocturnal Bird Migration in the Negev (Israel) - a Tracking Radar Study Bruderer, B. June 1994 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) EMF, Lighting Birds
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Positive Planning for Onshore Wind Expanding Onshore Wind Energy Capacity while Conserving Nature Bowyer, C., et al. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
Less for More: The Rube Goldberg Nature of Industrial Wind Development Boone, J. December 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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