Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort ascending Receptor
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian Collision Mortality at 50- and 60- m Guyed Towers in Central California Kerlinger, P., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Investigation on Design for a 500 W Wind Turbine Composite Blade Considering Impact Damage Kong, C., Choi, S., Park, H. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Advances in Sex Determination in Bats and its Utility in Wind-Wildlife Studies Korstian, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Wind Farm Facilities in Germany Kill Noctule Bats from Near and Far Lehnert, L., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Black Bears (Ursus americanus) as a Novel Potential Predator of Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a California Wind Energy Facility Lovich, J., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Turtles and Culverts, and Alternative Energy Development: An Unreported but Potentially Significant Mortality Threat to the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Lovich, J., et al. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Long-Term Post-Fire Effects on Spatial Ecology and Reproductive Output of Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind Energy Facility near Palm Springs, California, USA Lovich, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Visual Fields, Foraging and Collision Vulnerability in Gyps Vultures Martin, G., Portugal, S., Murn, C. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Environmental Reporting in the Spanish Wind Energy Sector: An Institutional View Mosene, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
An Update on the Status of Red Bats, Lasiurus blossevillii and Lasiurus borealis, in British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Paterson, B. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) EMF Bats
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle Mortalities at Wind Energy Facilities in the Contiguous United States Pagel, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Integrating applied ecology and planning policy: the case of micro-turbines and wildlife conservation Park, K., Turner, A., Minderman, J. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Interannual Home Range Variation, Territoriality and Overlap in Breeding Bonelli's Eagles (Aquila fasciata) Tracked by GPS Satellite Telemetry Perez-Garcia, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Calculation of Wind Farm Production Losses via MERRA Data in Consequence of Bat Based Temporary Wind Turbine Shut Downs Raabe, J., Schorer, T., Junge, J. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
A Forensic Investigation Into the Etiology of Bat Mortality at a Wind Farm: Barotrauma or Traumatic Injury? Rollins, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Wind Farm Potential is Higher in Prime Habitat for Uncommon Soil Crust Lichens Root, H., McCune, M., McCune, B. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
A Modelling Approach to Infer the Effects of Wind Farms on Landscape Connectivity for Bats Roscioni, F., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Nesting Success of Scissor-Tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) at a Wind Farm in Northern Texas Rubenstahl, T., Hale, A., Karsten, K. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Links to Nocturnal Insect Migration? Rydell, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Stressor Analysis Approaches for Endangered Species Assessments Salatas, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Using Species Distribution Modelling to Predict Bat Fatality Risk at Wind Farms Santos, H., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The New Zealand Falcon and Wind Farms: A Risk Assessment Framework Seaton, R., Barea, L. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Determination of Raptor Migratory Patterns Over a Large Landscape Seeland, H., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Characteristics of Soaring Birds' Spring Migration over Inland SE Bulgaria Shurulinkov, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Estimating Wind Turbine Caused Bird Mortality Smallwood, K. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Introduction: Wind-Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Nesting Burrowing Owl Density and Abundance in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Burrowing Owl Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Megawatts are not megawatt-hours and other responses to Willis et al. Sovacool, B. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds

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