Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2970
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general Birds
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Bird Studies at Large Runs wind farm, Jamtland Falkdalen, U., Lindahl, L., Nygård, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general Birds
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Survey Methods for Use in Assessment the Impacts of Onshore Wind Farms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
Pickering Wind Turbine Bird Monitoring Program in 2002 James, R. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves Johnson, G., Strickland, M. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Conference plenary discussion, conclusions and recommendations Langston, R., Fox, A., Drewitt, A. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Opening address to Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds Morley, E. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models Shamoun-Baranes, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Risk management model of birds and a wind farm Shimada, Y., Matsuda, H. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Re-powering Scotland: Wind Farms and the 'Energy or Environment?' Debate Warren, C., Birnie, R. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Bird Fatality Study at Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: October 2005 to September 2007 Altamont Pass Avian Monitoring Team January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area 48-Hour Search Interval Bird Fatality Study Jones & Stokes Associates June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general Birds
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm 2010 Bat Surveys Report RSK Environment July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm Bat Monitoring Report 2011 RSK Environment July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
The bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region in autumn 2008 Zehtindjiev, P. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Park "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2009/2010 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2009 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2010 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
The Monitoring of the Wintering Geese in the "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2008/2009 Zehtindjiev, P., et al. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2010 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2010/2011 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2011, and an evaluation of a potential “barrier effect” after two years of operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm 2011/2012 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2012 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm region in winter 2012/2013 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Kaliakra region in autumn 2013, and analysis of potential impact after four years of operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm and the Kaliakra region in winter 2013/2014 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm Territory, Kaliakra Region in Autumn 2014, an Analysis of Potential Impact after Five Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 1: Planning and Siting, Construction Gartman, V., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 2: Operation, Decommissioning Gartman, V., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy Wildlife Interactions Strickland, D., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2015, and an Analysis of Potential Impact after Six Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2014/2015 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Making Wind Turbines Safer for Birds Elise DeGeorge October 2016 Blog Article Wind Energy general
Assessing Environmental Effects (WREN): Adaptive Management White Paper Hanna, L., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Ecological Impact Assessments Fail to Reduce Risk of Bat Casualties at Wind Farms Lintott, P., et al. November 2016 Magazine Article Wind Energy general Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Understanding the Evidence: Wind Turbine Noise Council of Canadian Academies January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Massachusetts Study on Wind Turbine Acoustics Resource Systems Group February 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Canada’s Advantage: A Vision for Renewable Electricity in Canada Haffner, J., Vriesendorp, W. November 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general
A New Model for Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems: The Case of Wind Turbines Savino, M., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions Köppel, J. January 2017 Book Wind Energy general
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines

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