Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2328
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Ocean Plug Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Fish Response to Pile Driving Sound January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas (MESMA) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Windfarm Cables Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Assessment of the Potential for Acoustic Deterrents to Mitigate the Impact on Marine Mammals of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Gordon, J., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Aggregation and Feeding Behaviour of Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Wind Turbines in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general Noise Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Bats and Offshore Wind Turbines Studied in Southern Scandinavia Ahlén, I., et al. July 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments Bolle, L., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts 2011: Proceedings May, R., Bevanger, K. May 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Tethys: Developing a Commons for Understanding Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Copping, A., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds

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