Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Norfolk Vanguard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning October 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Potential benefits and secondary impacts Wiser, R., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Who cares? European attitudes towards marine and coastal environments Potts, T., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Biodiversity and wind energy in Kenya: Revealing landscape and wind turbine perceptions in the world’s wildlife capital Nordman, E., Mutinda, J. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Media and policy in a complex adaptive system: Insights from wind energy legislation in the United States Smith, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Landscape design: Integrating ecological, social, and economic considerations into conservation planning Bartuszevige, A., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 1: Planning and Siting, Construction Gartman, V., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Structure-Borne Wave Radiation by Impact and Vibratory Piling in Offshore Installations: From Sound Prediction to Auditory Damage Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, A. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Environmental impact and capacity analysis of renewable energy resources: Case study of wind energy in Turkey Degirmenci, S. August 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Searcher Efficiency and Survey Coverage Affect Precision of Fatality Estimates Reyes, G., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Impacts of wind power infrastructure development on semi-domesticated reindeer and reindeer husbandry Skarin, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Geographic Origins and Population Genetics of Bats Killed at Wind-Energy Facilities Pylant, C., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking Roeleke, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Environmental and Social Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy: Comparison with Onshore Counterpart Kaldellis, J., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2015, and an Analysis of Potential Impact after Six Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. July 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain Agnew, R., Smith, V., Fowkes, R. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Terrestrial Mammals
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Wind farm externalities and public preferences for community consultation in Ireland: A discrete choice experiments approach Brennan, N., Van Rensburg, T. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Multiple Mortality Events in Bats: A Global Review O'Shea, T., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 2: Operation, Decommissioning Gartman, V., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Impact Statement Na Pua Makani Wind Project and Habitat Conservation Plan Case, S., Tetra Tech Inc. June 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? Ferri, V., Battisti, C., Soccini, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Impact of Wind-Energy Generation on Climate: A Rising Spectre Abbasi, S., Abbasi, T., Abbasi, T. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure Mahoney, A., Chalfoun, A. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Literature review and evidence based field study on the effects of high voltage transmission lines on birds May 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Birds
Analysis of the wind turbine noise emissions and impact on the environment Katinas, V., Marčiukaitis, M., Tamašauskienė, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: An update Smith, J., Dwyer, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2016 Rodrigues, L. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Reducing the Collision Risk for Bats at Onshore Wind Turbines (RENEBAT II) Behr, O., et al. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Avian Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America: A Comparison of Recent Approaches Johnson, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
ABC’s Bird-Smart Wind Energy Campaign: Protecting Birds from Poorly Sited Wind Energy Development Hutchins, M., Parr, M., Schroeder, D. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Special Topic: Wildlife and Wind Energy: Are They Compatible? Hutchins, M., Leopold, B. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish
Impact of Wind Energy on Wildlife: Synthesis Leopold, B., Hutchins, M. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2015/2016 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Indirect Effects of an Existing Wind Energy Facility on Lekking Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chickens Smith, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Land-Dwelling Mammals Helldin, J., Skarin, A. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Addressing the factors that juxtapose raptors and wind turbines Hunt,G., Watson, J. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Community perceptions of renewable energies in Portugal: Impacts on environment, landscape and local development Delicado, A., Figueiredo, E., Silva, L. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Factors Influencing Winter Mortality Risk for Pronghorn Exposed to Wind Energy Development Taylor, K., Beck, J., Huzurbazar, S. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan Kageyama, T., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals

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