Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3001
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
A radar and visual study of nocturnal bird and bat migration at the proposed Prattsburgh-Italy wind power project, New York, spring 2005 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Melancthon Grey Wind Project Environmental Screening Report Stantec Consulting February 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of Sound on Fish Hastings, M., Popper, A. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance: Systematic Review Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Environmental Impact Assessment for Andmyran wind farm in Andøy, Nordland Bjerke, J., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
The Influence Of Large-Scale Wind Power On Global Climate Keith, D., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Jungbluth, N., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Farm Planning at the Gulf of Suez Clausen, N., et al. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Langston, R., Pullan, J. November 2004 Book Wind Energy (General) Birds
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Nearfield Habitat
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Physical Environment
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Wind Energy & the Threat to Bats Tuttle, M. July 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Avian Studies Mount Storm Wind Power Project, Grant County, West Virginia Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves Johnson, G., Strickland, M. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Towards Standardised Seabirds at Sea Census Techniques in Connection with Environmental Impact Assessments for Offshore Wind Farms in the UK Camphuysen, K., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Avian mortality associated with the Top of Iowa Wind Farm: Progress Report, Calendar Year 2003 Koford, R., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Lot 5 Marine Birds in and Around the Future Sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7 Leopold, M., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bat Deaths and Wind Turbines - A Review of Current Knowledge, and of the Information Available in the Database for Germany Durr, T., Bach, L. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy (General) Birds
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Exhibition Place Wind Turbine Report on Bird Monitoring in 2003 James, R., Coady, G. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats

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