Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2997
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Ashton Ridge Golf Course Wind Farm Project Environmental Screening Report Environmental Business Consultants March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, EMF Bats
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Collision Mortalities at Horseshoe Shoal of Bird Species of Special Concern Hatch, J., Brault, S. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Fish Thomsen, F., et al. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Estimation of seabird numbers in the German North Sea throughout the annual cycle and their biogeographic importance Garthe, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors
Applying Radar Technology to Migratory Bird Conservation and Management: Strengthening and Expanding a Collaborative Ruth, J. January 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Perception of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Presence of Simulated Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Lucke, K., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Less for More: The Rube Goldberg Nature of Industrial Wind Development Boone, J. December 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Arnett, E. December 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Avian/Wind Statistical Peer Review Project Surles, T., Vine, E. December 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Navigation
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Long-tailed Duck Report, Winter 2005-2006 ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Final Environmental Impact Statement Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Bonneville Power Administration September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Monitoring of Bird and Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta 2005-2006 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
2006 Rare Bird Survey at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Bats
Simulation of Sediment Transport and Deposition from Cable Burial Operations for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Isaji, T. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Noise on Marine Mammals and Fish Tomsen, F., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Farm Noise Assessment in Australia and Model Comparison Tickell, C. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Acoustic and Geophysical Measurement of Infrasound from Wind Farm Turbines Hepburn, H. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Ultrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines as a Potential Attractant to Bats: A Preliminary Investigation Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
An Assessment of Potential Direct and Indirect Impacts to Black Bear at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Farm Based Upon a Literature Review Parsons, J. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Proposed Yarram Wind Farm Bird Utilisation Survey Al-Dabbagh, K., Lane, B. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Avian Monitoring Study and Risk Assessment for the Shiloh Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds

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