Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3001
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Chittenden County, Vermont Gruver, J. February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Bats and onshore wind turbines Natural England February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Welcoming the Wind? Determinants of Wind Power Development Among U.S. States Bohn, C., Lant, C. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Reflections on Integrating Operations and Maintenance Activities of Offshore Wind Farms and Mariculture Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The State of the Birds United States of America 2009 North American Bird Conservation Initiative January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms Matuschek, R., Betke, K. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
The Effects Of Anthropogenic Sources Of Sound On Fishes Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Monitoring of the Wintering Geese in the "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2008/2009 Zehtindjiev, P., et al. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
The Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish Popper, A., Hastings, M. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2009 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Concerning an Act on Offshore Renewable Energy Production (the Offshore Energy Act) Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy January 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird Studies at Large Runs wind farm, Jamtland Falkdalen, U., Lindahl, L., Nygård, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
An Acoustic Study of Bat Activity at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Spring - Fall 2008 Hein, C., Schwab, N., Mabee, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: State of the Art After Two Years of Environmental Monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Breathe of Life: Ethical Wind Power and Wildlife Loder, R. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Terrestrial Mammals
Wildlife Baseline Studies for the Buffalo Ridge II Wind Resource Area Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Final Report March 2008 - November 2008 Derby, C., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Measurement of Wind Turbine Construction Noise at Horns Rev II Betke, K. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Scientific Review of California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Hicks, W., Newman, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Progress Report 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Turbine Foundation Faunal Colonisation Diving Survey Emu November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Perceived Concerns and Possible Management Strategies for Governing 'Wind-Farm Mariculture Integration' Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Raptors
The use of 'ecological risk' for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Over the Sea and Far Away? A Consideration of the Planning, Politics and Public Perception of Offshore Wind Farms Haggett, C. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Factors influencing carcass removal at wind-farms, in mountain areas of the center-north region of Portugal Silva, B., Barreiro, S., Alves, P. August 2008 Presentation Wind Energy (General) Bats
Raptors and Wind Energy Development in the Central Appalachians: Where We Stand on the Issue Katzner, T., et al. August 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Development: Macrobenthic Ecology Study - 2007 Emu June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Final Environmental Impact Report for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Project Shasta County Department of Resource Management June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methodologies for measuring and assessing potential changes in marine mammal behaviour, abundance or distribution arising from the construction, operation and decommissioning of offshore windfarms Diederichs, A., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Meeting the Quest for Spatial Efficiency: Progress and Prospects of Extensive Aquaculture within Offshore Wind Farms Buck, B., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Cool Rationalities and Hot Air: A Rhetorical Approach to Understanding Debates on Renewable Energy Barry, J., Ellis, G., Robinson, C. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, EMF, Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee: Progress Report on Fluxes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. March 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes

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