Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Farms as Productive Sites or Ecological Traps for Gadoid Fishes? - Impact on Growth, Condition Index and Diet Composition Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Residency, Site Fidelity and Habitat Use of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) at an Offshore Wind Farm Using Acoustic Telemetry Reubens, J., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Wind farms in Thrace: Updating the proposal for proper site selection WWF Greece September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fish at Offshore Wind Farms - Towards an Integrated Management Approach Reubens, J. August 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Bat Conservation International August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Wind Technology Center, Louisville, CO Bat Conservation International, National Renewable Energy Laboratory August 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Renewable Energy and Marine Spatial Planning: Scientific and Legal Implications Kannen, A., et al. August 2013 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Bird Impact Study of a Preloaded Composite Wind Turbine Blade Nanami, N., Ochoa, O. August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Birds
Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments Orr, T., Herz, S., Oakley, D. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Lighting
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Challenges and opportunities for animal conservation from renewable energy development Katzner, T., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Ecosystem Processes
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Physical Environment
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessing and Analyzing Bat Activity with Acoustic Monitoring: Challenges and Interpretations Adams, A. July 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies Hall, N., Ashworth, P., Devine-Wright, P. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Choi, E., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Environmental Statement: Volume 5 - Offshore Annexes Chapter 5.5.1: Ornithology Technical Report RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Deep Water: The Next Step for Offshore Wind Energy Arapogianni, A., et al. July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Temporal and Spatial Patterns in the Demersal Fish Community Bergström, L., Sundqvist, F., Bergström, U. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming Copeland, H., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Bats
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Predicting Underwater Radiated Noise Levels due to the First Offshore Wind Turbine Installation in the U.S. Kim, H., Miller, J., Potty, G. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites: Final Report Horne, J., et al. June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Cumulative Impacts Assessment Guidelines: Guiding Principles for Cumulative Impacts Assessment in Offshore Wind Farms Renewable UK June 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Sandercock, B. May 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Farm Potential is Higher in Prime Habitat for Uncommon Soil Crust Lichens Root, H., McCune, M., McCune, B. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Advances in Sex Determination in Bats and its Utility in Wind-Wildlife Studies Korstian, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Life cycle assessment of an onshore wind farm located at the northeastern coast of Brazil Oebels, K., Pacca, S. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions
Stressor Analysis Approaches for Endangered Species Assessments Salatas, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Ecosystems: A Review Taking an Ecosystem Services Perspective Mangi, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
A Group-Based Spatial Decision Support System for Wind Farm Site Selection in Northwest Ohio Gorsevski, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy and Scottish West Coast Fishers: Exploring Impacts, Opportunities and Potential Mitigation Alexander, K., Potts, T., Wilding, T. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Effectiveness of Search Dogs Compared with Human Observers in Locating Bat Carcasses at Wind-Turbine Sites: A Blinded Randomized Trial Mathews, F., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Introduction: Wind-Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Compensating White-Tailed Eagle Mortality at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant using Electrocution Prevention Measures Cole, S., Dahl, E. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
ICES WGMBRED Report 2013: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat

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