Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 510
Titlesort ascending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Colonization of Blue Mussels (Mytilus Edulis) on Offshore Wave Power Installations Langhamer, O. July 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Coastal impact of a hybrid marine farm operating close to the Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, L. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Characterization of Benthic Conditions and Organisms on the Oregon South Coast in areas targeted for Wave Energy Development Henkel, S. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. May 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Characterisation of the Biofouling Community on a Floating Wave Energy Device Nall, C., Schläppy, M., Guerin, A. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Challenging Best Knowledge to Real Conditions on the SEMREV Marine Test Site Perignon, Y., Le Crom, I. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea Plummer, M., Feist, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
BioWave Port Fairy Pilot Wave Energy Project December 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Biocide-Free Antifouling on Insulating Surface by Wave-Driven Triboelectrification-Induced Potential Oscillation Zhao, X., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
Billia Croo Fisheries Project: Final Report to the Scottish Government European Marine Energy Centre November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Beach response to wave energy converter farms acting as coastal defence Mendoza, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence Abanades, J. March 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Baselines and Monitoring Methods for Detecting Impacts of Hydrodynamic Energy Extraction on Intertidal Communities of Rocky Shores Want, A., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Climate Change
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Baseline Data and Power Analysis for the OWET Dungeness Crab and Fish Baseline Study Terrill, S., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Fish
Avian Radar Baseline Study: Final Survey Report for the Proposed Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Park Geo-Marine April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site Environmental Impact Statement Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of the Motion of Wave Power Generation by Water Tank Test Yoshida, T., Kitazawa, D., Mizukami, Y. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Chemicals Released in the Marine Environment by Dielectric Elastomers Useful as Active Elements in Wave Energy Harvesters Zaltariov, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-Economics
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Animals Interacting with Wave and Tidal Devices Andrea Copping July 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Analysis of Experience from Environmental Impact Assessments of Wave Energy Test Centres Conley, D., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An LCA of the Pelamis wave energy converter Thomson, R., Chick, J., Harrison, G. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Life Cycle Assessment
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An artificial neural network model of coastal erosion mitigation through wave farms Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Airborne and Underwater Noise Assessment at the Pico OWC Wave Power Plant de Moura, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Renewables - Implications from a Wave-Energy Converter Deployment in Falmouth Bay, UK Blondel, P., Walsh, J. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic impact of a wave energy converter in Mediterranean shallow waters Buscaino, G., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Fish
Acoustic Field Calibration for Noise Prediction: the CALCOM'10 Data Set Martins, N., Felisberto, P., Jesus, S. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic Environmental Monitoring - Wello Penguin Cooling System Noise Study Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
A Study of the Change in the Wave Field Due to the Presence of Wave Energy Converters Kalén, O. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise

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