Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 501
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
The impact of energy extraction of wave energy converter arrays on wave climate under multi-directional seas Tay, Z., Venugopal, V. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The impact of wave energy converter arrays on wave-induced forcing in the surf zone O'Dea, A., Haller, M., Ozkan-Haller, H. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
The Impact Of Wave Energy Farms In The Shoreline Wave Climate: Portuguese Pilot Zone Case Study Using Pelamis Energy Wave Devices Palha, A., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Kobald Marine Turbine: From the Testing Model to the Full Scale Prototype Calcagno, G., Moroso, A. November 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages Langhamer, O. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
The New Wave Energy Converter WaveCat: Concept and Laboratory Tests Fernandez, H., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy Osse, T., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review Saleh, F., Weinstein, M. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
The Role of Wave Energy Converter Farms on Coastal Protection in Eroding Deltas, Guadalfeo, Southern Spain Bergillos, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Tongatapu Wave Project Jonathan Whiting May 2013 Blog Article Wave
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Understanding the potential effects of wave energy devices on kelp biotopes Macleod, A., et al. January 2014 Report Wave Noise, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Role of Stakeholders in the Wave Energy Consenting Process: Engagement and Sensitivities Simas, T., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Measurements of a 1 to 7 Scale Wave Energy Converter Bassett, C., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices Patricio, S., Soares, S., Sarmento, A. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Wake effect assessment of a flap type wave energy converter farm under realistic environmental conditions by using a numerical coupling methodology Tomey-Bozo, N., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy Johnson, K., Kerr, S. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. July 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Wave Climate Investigation for an Array of Wave Power Devices Venugopal, V., Smith, G. January 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Dragon - 'Coldward and Stormward' Russell, I., Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H.C. October 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection: A Physical Model Test Study Nørgaard, J., Andersen, T., Kofoed, J. August 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs Lunt, J., Reustle, J., Smee, D. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Wave Energy and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: Assessment and Monitoring Aspects Patricio, S., Soares, C. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: State of Art and Uncertainties Patricio, S., Moura, A., Simas, T. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy Centre Website Wave Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Conversion and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. October 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Conversion Systems: Optimal Localization Procedure Benassai, G., Dattero, M., Maffucci, A. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter Arrays: Optimizing Power Production While Minimizing Environmental Effects Raghukumar, K., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site Leijon, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy in Clatsop County, OR: An Economic Impact Analysis Northwest Economic Research Center January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Wave Energy in Tropical Regions: Deployment Challenges, Environmental and Social Perspectives Felix, A., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea and the Danish Part of the North Sea, with Reflections on the Skagerrak Henfridsson, U., et al. October 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand November 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave energy to power a desalination plant in the north of Gran Canaria Island: Wave resource, socioeconomic and environmental assessment Prieto, L., Rodríguez, G., Rodriguez, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Energy Utilization: A Review of the Technologies António, F. April 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy: A Pacific Perspective Paasch, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave farm effects on the coast: The alongshore position Rodriguez-Delgado, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave farm impact based on realistic wave-WEC interaction Carballo, R., Iglesias, G. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wave hazards on microtidal shore platforms: testing the relationship between morphology and exposure Kennedy, D., Ierodiaconou, D., Weir, A. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Wave Hub November 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Hub Wave Monitoring Project Interim Report Number 3 South West of England Regional Development Agency February 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters Langhamer, O., Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave power devices as artificial reefs Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. September 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Wave Power in the US: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues Ram, B., et al. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Rider Wave Energy Pilot Plant November 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Star Hanstholm September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Swell Energy's Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Technology and 200 kW King Island Renewable Energy Integration Project Dr. Tom Denniss September 2019 Blog Article Wave
Waves4Power Wave El Buoy February 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wavestar Demonstrator, Monthly Report for June 2013 Wave Star July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wavestar Prototype at Roshage: Performance Data for ForskVE Project No 2009-1-10305 Phase 1 & 2 Wave Star January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wello Penguin at EMEC January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Whale Interactions with Wave Device Cables Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Wave
Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries Karimpour, A., Chen, Q., Twilley, R. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Working Group on Marine Benthal Renewable Developments Vanaverbeke, J., et al. January 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device

Pages

Subscribe to Wave
Find Tethys on InstagramFind Tethys on FacebookFind Tethys on Twitter
 
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Subscribe to Wave