Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 510
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
"Small is Beautiful" - But will Small WECs Ever Become Commercial? Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H., Russell, I. July 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Wave Dragon - 'Coldward and Stormward' Russell, I., Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H.C. October 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Ocean wave energy overview and research at Oregon State University Brekken, T., von Jouanne, A., Han, H. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges Pisacane, G., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy Johnson, K., Kerr, S. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Eco Wave Power wave energy power station Gibraltar May 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Eco Wave Power Manzanillo I Project January 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatial Environmental Assessment Tool (SEAT): A Modeling Tool to Evaluate Potential Environmental Risks Associated with Wave Energy Converter Deployments Jones, C., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Energy and socio-economic benefits from the development of wave energy in Greece Lavidas, G. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops norvegicus Bender, A., Sunberg, J. September 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Invertebrates
Project to Assess Potential Impacts of the Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Energy Generation Facility on Migration and Habitat use of Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) Payne, J., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Characterization of Benthic Conditions and Organisms on the Oregon South Coast in areas targeted for Wave Energy Development Henkel, S. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Riding the waves: use of the Pelamis device by seabirds Jackson, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Static Device Seabirds
Understanding the potential effects of wave energy devices on kelp biotopes Macleod, A., et al. January 2014 Report Wave Noise, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions Chang, G., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wake effect assessment of a flap type wave energy converter farm under realistic environmental conditions by using a numerical coupling methodology Tomey-Bozo, N., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Billia Croo Fisheries Project: Final Report to the Scottish Government European Marine Energy Centre November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates
Protection of gravel-dominated coasts through wave farms: Layout and shoreline evolution Rodriguez-Delgado, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The impact of wave energy converter arrays on wave-induced forcing in the surf zone O'Dea, A., Haller, M., Ozkan-Haller, H. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave farm effects on the coast: The alongshore position Rodriguez-Delgado, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
Social acceptance of ocean wave energy: A case study of an OWC shoreline plant Heras-Saizarbitoria, I., Zamanillo, I., Laskurain, I. August 2013 Journal Article Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
A 35 year high-resolution wave atlas for nearshore energy production and economics at the Aegean Sea Lavidas, G., Venugopal, V. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Coastal impact of a hybrid marine farm operating close to the Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, L. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave energy to power a desalination plant in the north of Gran Canaria Island: Wave resource, socioeconomic and environmental assessment Prieto, L., Rodríguez, G., Rodriguez, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave Energy in Clatsop County, OR: An Economic Impact Analysis Northwest Economic Research Center January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Lifecycle Environmental Impact Assessment of an Overtopping Wave Energy Converter Embedded in Breakwater Systems Patrizi, N., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms Babarit, A., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The effect of arrays of wave energy converters on the nearshore wave climate Atan, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave farm impact based on realistic wave-WEC interaction Carballo, R., Iglesias, G. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
A fundamental coupling methodology for modeling near-field and far-field wave effects of floating structures and wave energy devices Stratigaki, V., Troch, P., Forehand, D. December 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The impact of energy extraction of wave energy converter arrays on wave climate under multi-directional seas Tay, Z., Venugopal, V. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Acoustic impact of a wave energy converter in Mediterranean shallow waters Buscaino, G., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Fish
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dual wave farms and coastline dynamics: The role of inter-device spacing Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wave Energy in Tropical Regions: Deployment Challenges, Environmental and Social Perspectives Felix, A., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Wave Energy Converter Arrays: Optimizing Power Production While Minimizing Environmental Effects Raghukumar, K., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Modelling Offshore Wave farms for Coastal Process Impact Assessment: Waves, Beach Morphology, and Water Users Stokes, C., Conley, D. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Working Group on Marine Benthal Renewable Developments Vanaverbeke, J., et al. January 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
An artificial neural network model of coastal erosion mitigation through wave farms Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection Abanades, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Full life cycle assessment of two surge wave energy converters Karan, H., Thomson, R., Harrison, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Offshore underwater substation for wave energy converter arrays Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
Seabird Surveys at Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Hunt, J., Beaubier, J., McLoughlin, D. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
SOWFIA: Learning from Impact Assessments of European wave energy developments O'Hagan, A., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Swell Energy's Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Technology and 200 kW King Island Renewable Energy Integration Project Dr. Tom Denniss September 2019 Blog Article Wave
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Wave farm planning through high-resolution resource and performance characterization Carballo, R., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning
Underwater sound on wave & tidal test sites: improving knowledge of acoustic impact of Marine Energy Convertors Giry, C., Bald, J., Uriarte, A. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Ocean Energy and Coastal Protection A Novel Strategy for Coastal Management Under Climate Change Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Climate Change

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