Wave

Capturing energy from waves.

Ocean surface waves are generated by wind passing over the ocean surface. The friction between the wind and ocean surface causes energy to be transferred from the faster moving air to the surface layer of the ocean. Wave development depends on the length of ocean, or “fetch,” over which the wind blows in a constant direction. Longer fetches with higher wind velocities will produce larger waves. Waves can travel thousands of miles with little energy loss and can combine with waves from storms and other wind-driven events to create very energetic seas. The energy of ocean waves is concentrated at the surface and decays rapidly with depth. Wave energy technologies, also known as wave energy converters (WECs), capture energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves. WECs can be deployed at offshore, nearshore, and shore-based locations and are intended to be modular and deployed in arrays. Due to the diverse nature of waves in different regions of the world, there is a wide variety of WECs in various stages of research and development.

 

Point Absorber 

 

  • Point absorbers extract energy through the relative motion between a body that moves in response to wave forcing and fixed or immobile structures. The moving body may be on the surface or submerged, and the 'fixed' body may be the seabed or another structure less affected by wave action. Their principal dimension is small relative to the length of waves they are absorbing energy from. Electricity may be produced using a linear or rotary generator, or a fluid may be pumped using mechanical force and motion directly.
  • The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Large-scale changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Photo Credit: Ocean Power Technologies

Surface Attenuator

 

  • Surface attenuators generally have multiple segments connected to one another and that are oriented parallel with incoming waves. They use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that may be converted into rotation or drive hydraulic pumps to generate electricity. Some attenuator designs consist of a single long, flexible surface expression instead of multiple segments.
  • Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

 

Oscillating Water Column

 

  • Oscillating water column devices use wave action to pressurize air in a chamber, forcing it through an air turbine. As water recedes from the chamber, the resulting vacuum pulls air back through the turbine and into the chamber. They can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. The turbine may be coupled to a rotary generator to produce electricity.
  • Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds, marine mammals, and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting entrapped within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collisionattraction or avoidanceelectromagnetic fields, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore, these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

  • Overtopping devices are long structures that allow wave motion to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The difference in pressure between water in the reservoir and water at the surface forces fluid through a low-head turbine coupled to a generator, where electricity is produced similar to conventional hydropower. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.
  • There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting entrapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

  • Oscillating wave surge devices typically have one end fixed to a substructure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body, driven by the horizontal motion of waves (surge), to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes. Rotary motion at a hinge may drive a generator to produce electricity, or the moving body may be used to pressurize a fluid.
  • Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts to water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber.

Photo Credit: Aquamarine Power

Total Results: 514
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter December 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Lysekil Wave Energy Site March 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
SURGE Waveroller October 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wave Hub November 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General)
Wave Rider Wave Energy Pilot Plant November 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Wave Star Hanstholm September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Waves4Power Wave El Buoy February 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Wello Penguin at EMEC January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Ocean Power Technologies Moray Firth April 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
North West Lewis Wave Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Pico Oscillating Water Column January 1999 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Perth Wave Energy Project November 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC October 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Kaneohe Bay OPT Wave Project January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
EMEC Scapa Flow Non Grid-Connected Wave Test Site September 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Testing of Ocean Energy Buoy at Galway Bay, Ireland January 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
OceanPlug Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Oceanlinx MK1 January 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Oceanlinx MK2 October 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Oyster 800 at EMEC June 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Oyster 1 at EMEC November 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Oceanlinx MK3 February 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
BioWave Port Fairy Pilot Wave Energy Project December 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter 1:4 prototype January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Wave Energy Conversion and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. October 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Study of the Change in the Wave Field Due to the Presence of Wave Energy Converters Kalén, O. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Possible Impact on Hydrography and Sediment Transport by Wave Power Park - Numerical Modelling Persson, O. April 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave
Wave Energy and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence Abanades, J. March 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
A Bayesian approach to habitat suitability prediction Lockett, D. March 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Optimization of Wave Farm Location and Layout for Coastal Protection Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow
Wave Energy Converter Configuration for Coastal Erosion Mitigation Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. July 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Converter Configuration for Coastal Flooding Mitigation Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow
Management of Coastal Erosion Under Climate Change Through Wave Farms Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Management of Coastal Flooding Under Climate Change Through Wave Farms Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Noise
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: Environmental Impact Assessment Kregting, L., Elsäßer, B. June 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wave and Tidal Energy Johnson, K., Kerr, S. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Dragon - 'Coldward and Stormward' Russell, I., Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H.C. October 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Noise
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change
Baselines and Monitoring Methods for Detecting Impacts of Hydrodynamic Energy Extraction on Intertidal Communities of Rocky Shores Want, A., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Climate Change
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Wave Energy Centre Website Wave Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy (General), Wave
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Chemicals, EMF, Changes in Flow, Lighting, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision
EMEC Billia Croo High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Fluorometer Monitoring Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Ecosystem Processes
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Putting the Pieces Together: Alternatives Analysis and Decision Support Halsey, K., Manson, P. January 2012 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Physical Environment
Quantifying "Exposure" with Cost Effective Wave Resource Measurements Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2008 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow, Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Chemicals, EMF, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Impact of Wave Energy Arrays on Beach Processes Neill, S., et al. February 2012 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of Experience from Environmental Impact Assessments of Wave Energy Test Centres Conley, D., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Littoral Characterisation of West Mainland Orkney: The Relationship between Wave Energy, Topography and the Biological Community Want, A., Side, J., Bell, M. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise

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