Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 522
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
OXYFLUX, an innovative wave-driven device for the oxygenation of deep layers in coastal areas: A physical investigation Antonini, A., Lamberti, A., Archetti, R. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change, Fishing
Oyster 1 at EMEC November 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Oyster 2 (Phase 1) Decommissioning Programme Aquamarine Power July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oyster 800 at EMEC June 2012 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC October 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Perth Wave Energy Project November 2014 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report Dooher, B., et al. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase II Cumulative Effects Framework Final Report Halsey, K., Radil, A. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Pico Oscillating Water Column January 1999 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters April 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Planning for Effects of Wave Energy Development Before Going to Sea Kelly Ruehl, Chris Chartrand, and Jesse Roberts February 2015 Blog Article Wave
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
PMEC: Pacific Marine Energy Center Luke Hanna February 2013 Blog Article Wave
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Possible Impact on Hydrography and Sediment Transport by Wave Power Park - Numerical Modelling Persson, O. April 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Potential Impacts Of Hydrokinetic And Wave Energy Conversion Technologies On Aquatic Environments Cada, G., et al. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Project to Assess Potential Impacts of the Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Energy Generation Facility on Migration and Habitat use of Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) Payne, J., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Protection of gravel-dominated coasts through wave farms: Layout and shoreline evolution Rodriguez-Delgado, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Putting the Pieces Together: Alternatives Analysis and Decision Support Halsey, K., Manson, P. January 2012 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Quantifying "Exposure" with Cost Effective Wave Resource Measurements Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2008 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Quantifying Benefits and Impacts of Fishing Exclusion Zones on Bio-Resources around Marine Renewable Energy Installations (QBEX) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Plans Terminated Tehani Montaron May 2014 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Settlement Agreement Ocean Power Technologies July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
REEFS: An Artificial Reef for Wave Energy Harnessing and Shore Protection – A New Concept Towards Multipurpose Sustainable Solutions de Almeida, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Review of Wave Hub Technical Studies: Impacts on Inshore Surfing Beaches Black, K. December 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
RiCORE Project January 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Riding the Wave: Confronting Jurisdictional and Regulatory Barriers to Ocean Energy Development Murray, D., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Riding the waves: use of the Pelamis device by seabirds Jackson, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Static Device Seabirds
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Seabased at the Maren Site September 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Semi-Active Control of Sound Radiated From an Elastic Circular Plate Integrated With Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorbers Hemmatian, M., Sedaghati, R. September 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Siting Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Projects: A Comparative Look at Wave Energy Regulation in the Pacific Northwest Salcido, R. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Social acceptance of ocean wave energy: A case study of an OWC shoreline plant Heras-Saizarbitoria, I., Zamanillo, I., Laskurain, I. August 2013 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Social, Planning and Environmental Impact Sørensen, H., et al. January 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Sotenäs Project January 2014 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable 2.6 - Work Package 2 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Work Package 2 Findings Regarding Barriers and Accelerators of Wave Energy O'Callaghan, J., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable 3.5 - Work Package 3 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment Experience for Wave Energy Conley, D., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
SOWFIA Deliverable D 3.1: Inventory of Environmental Impact Monitoring Activities at Wave & Tidal Energy Sites in Europe Final Report Conley, D., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.1: Catalogue of Wave Energy Test Centres Mora-Figueroa, V., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.4: Interim Report on Barriers, Accelerators and Lessons Learned from all Wave Energy Site Experiences Arjona, E., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.3.3: Interim WP3 Report Magagna, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.4 Interim Report: Critical Environmental Impacts for Relevant Socio-economic Activities and Mitigation Measures Including Main Conclusions and Feedback Analysis from Workshop B and Analysis of the Stakeholder Survey Simas, T., et al. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.5: Report of Final Project Conference, Aalborg, Denmark Perez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Spatial Environmental Assessment Tool (SEAT): A Modeling Tool to Evaluate Potential Environmental Risks Associated with Wave Energy Converter Deployments Jones, C., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms Babarit, A., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Streamlining of Ocean Wave Farms Impact Assessment (SOWFIA) October 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Study on the Influence of the Distance to Shore for a Wave Energy Farm Operating in the Central Part of the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Onea, F. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment

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