Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 514
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Billia Croo Fisheries Project: Final Report to the Scottish Government European Marine Energy Centre November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Wave Hub Wave Monitoring Project Interim Report Number 3 South West of England Regional Development Agency February 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Review of Wave Hub Technical Studies: Impacts on Inshore Surfing Beaches Black, K. December 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave Power in the US: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues Ram, B., et al. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave Climate Investigation for an Array of Wave Power Devices Venugopal, V., Smith, G. January 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Underwater Noise Measurements of a 1 to 7 Scale Wave Energy Converter Bassett, C., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic Field Calibration for Noise Prediction: the CALCOM'10 Data Set Martins, N., Felisberto, P., Jesus, S. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
"Small is Beautiful" - But will Small WECs Ever Become Commercial? Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H., Russell, I. July 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Development of Invertebrate Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Challenging Best Knowledge to Real Conditions on the SEMREV Marine Test Site Perignon, Y., Le Crom, I. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimations Based on In-Situ Measurements Le Crom, I., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessment of the Motion of Wave Power Generation by Water Tank Test Yoshida, T., Kitazawa, D., Mizukami, Y. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Underwater sound on wave & tidal test sites: improving knowledge of acoustic impact of Marine Energy Convertors Giry, C., Bald, J., Uriarte, A. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
The Kobald Marine Turbine: From the Testing Model to the Full Scale Prototype Calcagno, G., Moroso, A. November 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Understanding the Role of Stakeholders in the Wave Energy Consenting Process: Engagement and Sensitivities Simas, T., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Wave Energy Converter Arrays: Optimizing Power Production While Minimizing Environmental Effects Raghukumar, K., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Offshore underwater substation for wave energy converter arrays Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment Of Wave Energy Converters: A Review Riefolo, L., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Wave power devices as artificial reefs Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. September 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Modeling of Wave Energy Absorption: a Case Study for a Fishing Pier in Brazil Dalla Vecchia, L., et al. January 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Fisheries
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy Osse, T., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Marine Mammals
Model Experimental Study on Wave Dissipation Effect for Double-deck Monomer Floating Structure Zhou, C., Shang Guan, Z., Shen, L. December 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Coastal impact of a hybrid marine farm operating close to the Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, L. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impact of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Operation on Nearshore Processes Neill, S., Iglesias, G. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Norgaard, J., Andersen, T. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update Lejerskog, E., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops norvegicus Bender, A., Sunberg, J. September 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Collision Invertebrates
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Measurements of Shoreline Wave Action to Establish Possible Environmental and Ecological Effects from Wave Energy Converter Arrays Beharie, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Modelling the Vertical Directivity of Noise from Underwater Drilling Ward, P., Needham, K. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Mutriku Wave Power Plant: From the Thinking out to the Reality Torre-Enciso, Y., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion Huang, S., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Measurement of the Effect of Power Absorption in the Lee of a Wave Energy Converter Ashton, I., Johanning, L., Linfoot, B. June 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection: A Physical Model Test Study Nørgaard, J., Andersen, T., Kofoed, J. August 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow
Riding the waves: use of the Pelamis device by seabirds Jackson, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Habitat Change Seabirds
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: Assessment and Monitoring Aspects Patricio, S., Soares, C. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Airborne and Underwater Noise Assessment at the Pico OWC Wave Power Plant de Moura, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Semi-Active Control of Sound Radiated From an Elastic Circular Plate Integrated With Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorbers Hemmatian, M., Sedaghati, R. September 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: State of Art and Uncertainties Patricio, S., Moura, A., Simas, T. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices Patricio, S., Soares, S., Sarmento, A. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Eco Wave Power wave energy power station Gibraltar May 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Eco Wave Power Manzanillo I Project January 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Falmouth Bay Test Site (FaBTest) January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Seabased at the Maren Site September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave

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