Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 502
Title Authorsort ascending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Falmouth Bay Test Site (FaBTest) January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Wave Monitoring Project Interim Report Number 3 South West of England Regional Development Agency February 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Impact of Wave Energy Arrays on Beach Processes Neill, S., et al. February 2012 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Planning for Effects of Wave Energy Development Before Going to Sea Kelly Ruehl, Chris Chartrand, and Jesse Roberts February 2015 Blog Article Wave
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics
Understanding the Role of Stakeholders in the Wave Energy Consenting Process: Engagement and Sensitivities Simas, T., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.1 Wave Instrumentation Database Lawrence, J., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.13 Collation of Model Construction Methods Lopes, M., Candido, J., Mallen, L. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Possible Impact on Hydrography and Sediment Transport by Wave Power Park - Numerical Modelling Persson, O. April 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
The New Wave Energy Converter WaveCat: Concept and Laboratory Tests Fernandez, H., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
A Study of the Change in the Wave Field Due to the Presence of Wave Energy Converters Kalén, O. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Marine Environmental Appraisal of an Ocean Energy Test Site in Inner Galway Bay Aquafact April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: Assessment and Monitoring Aspects Patricio, S., Soares, C. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Airborne and Underwater Noise Assessment at the Pico OWC Wave Power Plant de Moura, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
Study on the Influence of the Distance to Shore for a Wave Energy Farm Operating in the Central Part of the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Onea, F. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wavestar Prototype at Roshage: Performance Data for ForskVE Project No 2009-1-10305 Phase 1 & 2 Wave Star January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wavestar Demonstrator, Monthly Report for June 2013 Wave Star July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Dragon Project - Milla Fjord Site Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Littoral Characterisation of West Mainland Orkney: The Relationship between Wave Energy, Topography and the Biological Community Want, A., Side, J., Bell, M. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Analysis of Experience from Environmental Impact Assessments of Wave Energy Test Centres Conley, D., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Forecasting ocean wave energy: The ECMWF wave model and time series methods Reikard, G., Pinson, P., Bidlot, J. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics

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