Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 522
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Project to Assess Potential Impacts of the Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Energy Generation Facility on Migration and Habitat use of Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) Payne, J., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Characterization of Benthic Conditions and Organisms on the Oregon South Coast in areas targeted for Wave Energy Development Henkel, S. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Understanding the potential effects of wave energy devices on kelp biotopes Macleod, A., et al. January 2014 Report Wave Noise, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Billia Croo Fisheries Project: Final Report to the Scottish Government European Marine Energy Centre November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.1 Wave Instrumentation Database Lawrence, J., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oyster 2 (Phase 1) Decommissioning Programme Aquamarine Power July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Navigational Safety Risk Assessment for the Wave Test Site at the European Marine Energy Centre Cantello, D. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Navigation
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report Dooher, B., et al. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Maren, A Test Facility for the Bolgekraftverk Round - Review and Consequences Vattenfall May 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Electric Power Research Institute December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Social, Planning and Environmental Impact Sørensen, H., et al. January 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Acoustic Environmental Monitoring - Wello Penguin Cooling System Noise Study Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.4: Interim Report on Barriers, Accelerators and Lessons Learned from all Wave Energy Site Experiences Arjona, E., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.1: Catalogue of Wave Energy Test Centres Mora-Figueroa, V., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.3.3: Interim WP3 Report Magagna, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Power in the US: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues Ram, B., et al. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
D2.13 Collation of Model Construction Methods Lopes, M., Candido, J., Mallen, L. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Review of Wave Hub Technical Studies: Impacts on Inshore Surfing Beaches Black, K. December 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Avian Radar Baseline Study: Final Survey Report for the Proposed Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Park Geo-Marine April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Baseline Data and Power Analysis for the OWET Dungeness Crab and Fish Baseline Study Terrill, S., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise

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