Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 520
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
D2.1 Wave Instrumentation Database Lawrence, J., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.13 Collation of Model Construction Methods Lopes, M., Candido, J., Mallen, L. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.28 Model Construction Methods Thiebaut, F., Sutton, G., Johnstone, C. October 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Development of an Electrical Power Take Off System for a Sea-Test Scaled Offshore Wave Energy Device O’Sullivana, D., et al. April 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Development of Invertebrate Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Direct drive surge wave energy converter with grid integration functionality Enferad, E., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? Valanko, S., Norkko, J., Norkko, A. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
DTOceanPlus May 2019 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Dual wave farms and coastline dynamics: The role of inter-device spacing Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Eco Wave Power Manzanillo I Project January 2019 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Eco Wave Power wave energy power station Gibraltar May 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Ecological and morphological traits predict depth-generalist fishes on coral reefs Bridge, T., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale Scyphers, S., Powers, S., Heck, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion Huang, S., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops norvegicus Bender, A., Sunberg, J. September 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Benthic Invertebrates
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Fluorometer Monitoring Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Ecosystem
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
EMEC Billia Croo High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
EMEC Scapa Flow Non Grid-Connected Wave Test Site September 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Energy and socio-economic benefits from the development of wave energy in Greece Lavidas, G. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Danish Wave Energy Center January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Environmental Impact Assessment Of Wave Energy Converters: A Review Riefolo, L., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
ETIP Ocean 2 January 2019 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays O'Boyle, L., Elsäßer, B., Whittaker, T. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimations Based on In-Situ Measurements Le Crom, I., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site (FaBTest) January 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem

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