Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 502
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort ascending Receptor
Measurements of Shoreline Wave Action to Establish Possible Environmental and Ecological Effects from Wave Energy Converter Arrays Beharie, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Modelling the Vertical Directivity of Noise from Underwater Drilling Ward, P., Needham, K. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Mutriku Wave Power Plant: From the Thinking out to the Reality Torre-Enciso, Y., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Navigational Safety Risk Assessment for the Wave Test Site at the European Marine Energy Centre Cantello, D. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Navigation
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices Patricio, S., Soares, S., Sarmento, A. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Space, Ocean Place The Human Dimensions Of Wave Energy In Oregon Conway, F., et al. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Oyster 2 (Phase 1) Decommissioning Programme Aquamarine Power July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report Dooher, B., et al. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Potential Impacts Of Hydrokinetic And Wave Energy Conversion Technologies On Aquatic Environments Cada, G., et al. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Quantifying "Exposure" with Cost Effective Wave Resource Measurements Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2008 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Maren, A Test Facility for the Bolgekraftverk Round - Review and Consequences Vattenfall May 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Riding the Wave: Confronting Jurisdictional and Regulatory Barriers to Ocean Energy Development Murray, D., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Siting Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Projects: A Comparative Look at Wave Energy Regulation in the Pacific Northwest Salcido, R. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Social, Planning and Environmental Impact Sørensen, H., et al. January 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea Diaconu, S., Rusu, E. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Impact Of Wave Energy Farms In The Shoreline Wave Climate: Portuguese Pilot Zone Case Study Using Pelamis Energy Wave Devices Palha, A., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Underwater Noise Measurements of a 1 to 7 Scale Wave Energy Converter Bassett, C., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Climate Investigation for an Array of Wave Power Devices Venugopal, V., Smith, G. January 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection: A Physical Model Test Study Nørgaard, J., Andersen, T., Kofoed, J. August 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Centre Website Wave Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Conversion Systems: Optimal Localization Procedure Benassai, G., Dattero, M., Maffucci, A. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Wave Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea and the Danish Part of the North Sea, with Reflections on the Skagerrak Henfridsson, U., et al. October 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Utilization: A Review of the Technologies António, F. April 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: State of Art and Uncertainties Patricio, S., Moura, A., Simas, T. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site Leijon, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of Wave Hub Technical Studies: Impacts on Inshore Surfing Beaches Black, K. December 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Wave Power in the US: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues Ram, B., et al. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters Langhamer, O., Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Energy: A Pacific Perspective Paasch, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
A Method for EIA Scoping of Wave Energy Converters - Based on Classification of the Used Technology Margheritini, L., Hansen, A., Frigaard, P. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. May 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
North West Lewis Wave Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Ocean Power Technologies Moray Firth April 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Plans Terminated Tehani Montaron May 2014 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Interactions of Marine and Avian Animals Around Marine Energy Devices in Scotland Molly Grear May 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
A Marine Spatial Planning Approach to Select Suitable Areas for Installing Wave Energy Converters on the Basque Continental Shelf (Bay of Biscay) Galparsoro, I., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wello Penguin at EMEC January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Acoustic Environmental Monitoring - Wello Penguin Cooling System Noise Study Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Animals Interacting with Wave and Tidal Devices Andrea Copping July 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wave Energy Conversion and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. October 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Sotenäs Project January 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave

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