Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 520
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Dual wave farms and coastline dynamics: The role of inter-device spacing Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
REEFS: An Artificial Reef for Wave Energy Harnessing and Shore Protection – A New Concept Towards Multipurpose Sustainable Solutions de Almeida, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
A fundamental coupling methodology for modeling near-field and far-field wave effects of floating structures and wave energy devices Stratigaki, V., Troch, P., Forehand, D. December 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The impact of energy extraction of wave energy converter arrays on wave climate under multi-directional seas Tay, Z., Venugopal, V. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic impact of a wave energy converter in Mediterranean shallow waters Buscaino, G., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Fish
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendozaa, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The effect of arrays of wave energy converters on the nearshore wave climate Atan, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Social acceptance of ocean wave energy: A case study of an OWC shoreline plant Heras-Saizarbitoria, I., Zamanillo, I., Laskurain, I. August 2013 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A 35 year high-resolution wave atlas for nearshore energy production and economics at the Aegean Sea Lavidas, G., Venugopal, V. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave energy to power a desalination plant in the north of Gran Canaria Island: Wave resource, socioeconomic and environmental assessment Prieto, L., Rodríguez, G., Rodriguez, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Lifecycle Environmental Impact Assessment of an Overtopping Wave Energy Converter Embedded in Breakwater Systems Patrizi, N., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms Babarit, A., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs Lunt, J., Reustle, J., Smee, D. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Nearshore assessment of wave energy resources in central Chile (2009–2010) Mediavilla, D., Sepulveda, H. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Characterisation of the Biofouling Community on a Floating Wave Energy Device Nall, C., Schläppy, M., Guerin, A. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The impact of wave energy converter arrays on wave-induced forcing in the surf zone O'Dea, A., Haller, M., Ozkan-Haller, H. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages Langhamer, O. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Wake effect assessment of a flap type wave energy converter farm under realistic environmental conditions by using a numerical coupling methodology Tomey-Bozo, N., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Protection of gravel-dominated coasts through wave farms: Layout and shoreline evolution Rodriguez-Delgado, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Phase II Cumulative Effects Framework Final Report Halsey, K., Radil, A. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Settlement Agreement Ocean Power Technologies July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Wave Monitoring Project Interim Report Number 3 South West of England Regional Development Agency February 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.5: Report of Final Project Conference, Aalborg, Denmark Perez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
D2.28 Model Construction Methods Thiebaut, F., Sutton, G., Johnstone, C. October 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable 2.6 - Work Package 2 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Work Package 2 Findings Regarding Barriers and Accelerators of Wave Energy O'Callaghan, J., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable 3.5 - Work Package 3 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment Experience for Wave Energy Conley, D., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.4: Interim Report on Barriers, Accelerators and Lessons Learned from all Wave Energy Site Experiences Arjona, E., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.1: Catalogue of Wave Energy Test Centres Mora-Figueroa, V., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Wavestar Demonstrator, Monthly Report for June 2013 Wave Star July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Environmental Appraisal of an Ocean Energy Test Site in Inner Galway Bay Aquafact April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics

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