Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 520
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
SURGE Waveroller October 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Conversion and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. October 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand November 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Oyster 1 at EMEC November 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
'You don't do a chemistry experiment in your best china': Symbolic interpretations of place and technology in a wave energy case McLachlan, C. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Future of the Atlantic Marine Environment (FAME) January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Ocean Space, Ocean Place The Human Dimensions Of Wave Energy In Oregon Conway, F., et al. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
The Impact Of Wave Energy Farms In The Shoreline Wave Climate: Portuguese Pilot Zone Case Study Using Pelamis Energy Wave Devices Palha, A., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A Study of the Change in the Wave Field Due to the Presence of Wave Energy Converters Kalén, O. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment (MaREE) January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Hub Wave Monitoring Project Interim Report Number 3 South West of England Regional Development Agency February 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK3 February 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Wave Energy Utilization: A Review of the Technologies António, F. April 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Environmental Appraisal of an Ocean Energy Test Site in Inner Galway Bay Aquafact April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Settlement Agreement Ocean Power Technologies July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: Assessment and Monitoring Aspects Patricio, S., Soares, C. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Airborne and Underwater Noise Assessment at the Pico OWC Wave Power Plant de Moura, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Streamlining of Ocean Wave Farms Impact Assessment (SOWFIA) October 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC October 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Hub November 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters Langhamer, O., Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Falmouth Bay Test Site (FaBTest) January 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Flow, Water Column & Benthic Ecology 4D (FLOWBEC) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Understanding How Marine Renewable Device Operations Influence Fine Scale Habitat Use & Behaviour of Marine Vertebrates (RESPONSE) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Appropriate Assessment Screening for AMETS, Co. Mayo January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wello Penguin at EMEC January 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Wave Energy Converters for use in Coastal Protection January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Hebridean Marine Energy Futures (HMEF) March 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals
Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Power Technologies Moray Firth April 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Avian Radar Baseline Study: Final Survey Report for the Proposed Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Park Geo-Marine April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Development of an Electrical Power Take Off System for a Sea-Test Scaled Offshore Wave Energy Device O’Sullivana, D., et al. April 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Understanding Benthic Productivity on Artificial Structures: Maximising the Benefit of Marine Renewable Energy Devices May 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Acoustic Field Calibration for Noise Prediction: the CALCOM'10 Data Set Martins, N., Felisberto, P., Jesus, S. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D 3.1: Inventory of Environmental Impact Monitoring Activities at Wave & Tidal Energy Sites in Europe Final Report Conley, D., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Forecasting ocean wave energy: The ECMWF wave model and time series methods Reikard, G., Pinson, P., Bidlot, J. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Mutriku Wave Power Plant July 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Oyster 2 (Phase 1) Decommissioning Programme Aquamarine Power July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection: A Physical Model Test Study Nørgaard, J., Andersen, T., Kofoed, J. August 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
EMEC Scapa Flow Non Grid-Connected Wave Test Site September 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update Lejerskog, E., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Measurements of Shoreline Wave Action to Establish Possible Environmental and Ecological Effects from Wave Energy Converter Arrays Beharie, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Underwater Noise Measurements of a 1 to 7 Scale Wave Energy Converter Bassett, C., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Siting Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Projects: A Comparative Look at Wave Energy Regulation in the Pacific Northwest Salcido, R. October 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics

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