Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 510
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Further Analysis Of Change In Nearshore Wave Climate Due To An Offshore Wave Farm: An Enhanced Case Study For The Wave Hub Site Smith, H., Pearce, C., Millar, D. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Human Dimensions
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats Fulton, C., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Human Dimensions
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) Sierra, J., Casas-Prat, M., Campins, E. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Impact of Wave Energy Arrays on Beach Processes Neill, S., et al. February 2012 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impact of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Operation on Nearshore Processes Neill, S., Iglesias, G. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
In situ observations and simulations of coastal wave field transformation by wave energy converters Contardo, S., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Interactions of Marine and Avian Animals Around Marine Energy Devices in Scotland Molly Grear May 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Norgaard, J., Andersen, T. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Kaneohe Bay OPT Wave Project January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Lifecycle Environmental Impact Assessment of an Overtopping Wave Energy Converter Embedded in Breakwater Systems Patrizi, N., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Littoral Characterisation of West Mainland Orkney: The Relationship between Wave Energy, Topography and the Biological Community Want, A., Side, J., Bell, M. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates
Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update Lejerskog, E., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Lysekil Wave Energy Site March 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Management of Coastal Erosion Under Climate Change Through Wave Farms Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Management of Coastal Flooding Under Climate Change Through Wave Farms Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Managing Eco-System Service Decisions Ullman, D., Halsey, K., Goldfinger, C. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Electric Power Research Institute December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Maren, A Test Facility for the Bolgekraftverk Round - Review and Consequences Vattenfall May 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges Pisacane, G., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions
Marine Environmental Appraisal of an Ocean Energy Test Site in Inner Galway Bay Aquafact April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Measurement of the Effect of Power Absorption in the Lee of a Wave Energy Converter Ashton, I., Johanning, L., Linfoot, B. June 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Measurements of Shoreline Wave Action to Establish Possible Environmental and Ecological Effects from Wave Energy Converter Arrays Beharie, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Model Experimental Study on Wave Dissipation Effect for Double-deck Monomer Floating Structure Zhou, C., Shang Guan, Z., Shen, L. December 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Fishing
Modeling of Wave Energy Absorption: a Case Study for a Fishing Pier in Brazil Dalla Vecchia, L., et al. January 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Fishing
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Modelling Offshore Wave farms for Coastal Process Impact Assessment: Waves, Beach Morphology, and Water Users Stokes, C., Conley, D. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Modelling the Vertical Directivity of Noise from Underwater Drilling Ward, P., Needham, K. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Multi-criteria evaluation of wave energy projects on the south-east Australian coast Flocard, F., Ierodiaconou, D., Coghlan, I. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Mutriku Wave Power Plant: From the Thinking out to the Reality Torre-Enciso, Y., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Navigational Safety Risk Assessment for the Wave Test Site at the European Marine Energy Centre Cantello, D. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Human Dimensions, Navigation
Nearshore assessment of wave energy resources in central Chile (2009–2010) Mediavilla, D., Sepulveda, H. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
North West Lewis Wave Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions Chang, G., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: Environmental Impact Assessment Kregting, L., Elsäßer, B. June 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Ocean Energy and Coastal Protection A Novel Strategy for Coastal Management Under Climate Change Bergillos, R., Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Iglesias, G. January 2020 Book Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Ocean Power Technologies Moray Firth April 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Ocean Space, Ocean Place The Human Dimensions Of Wave Energy In Oregon Conway, F., et al. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives Lehmann, M., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Ocean wave energy overview and research at Oregon State University Brekken, T., von Jouanne, A., Han, H. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK1 January 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK2 October 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK3 February 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OceanPlug Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter December 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter 1:4 prototype January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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