Wave

Capturing energy from waves.

Ocean surface waves are generated by wind passing over the ocean surface. The friction between the wind and ocean surface causes energy to be transferred from the faster moving air to the surface layer of the ocean. Wave development depends on the length of ocean, or “fetch,” over which the wind blows in a constant direction. Longer fetches with higher wind velocities will produce larger waves. Waves can travel thousands of miles with little energy loss and can combine with waves from storms and other wind-driven events to create very energetic seas. The energy of ocean waves is concentrated at the surface and decays rapidly with depth. Wave energy technologies, also known as wave energy converters (WECs), capture energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves. WECs can be deployed at offshore, nearshore, and shore-based locations and are intended to be modular and deployed in arrays. Due to the diverse nature of waves in different regions of the world, there is a wide variety of WECs in various stages of research and development.

 

Point Absorber 

 

  • Point absorbers extract energy through the relative motion between a body that moves in response to wave forcing and fixed or immobile structures. The moving body may be on the surface or submerged, and the 'fixed' body may be the seabed or another structure less affected by wave action. Their principal dimension is small relative to the length of waves they are absorbing energy from. Electricity may be produced using a linear or rotary generator, or a fluid may be pumped using mechanical force and motion directly.
  • The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Large-scale changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Photo Credit: Ocean Power Technologies

Surface Attenuator

 

  • Surface attenuators generally have multiple segments connected to one another and that are oriented parallel with incoming waves. They use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that may be converted into rotation or drive hydraulic pumps to generate electricity. Some attenuator designs consist of a single long, flexible surface expression instead of multiple segments.
  • Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

 

Oscillating Water Column

 

  • Oscillating water column devices use wave action to pressurize air in a chamber, forcing it through an air turbine. As water recedes from the chamber, the resulting vacuum pulls air back through the turbine and into the chamber. They can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. The turbine may be coupled to a rotary generator to produce electricity.
  • Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds, marine mammals, and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting entrapped within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collisionattraction or avoidanceelectromagnetic fields, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore, these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

  • Overtopping devices are long structures that allow wave motion to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The difference in pressure between water in the reservoir and water at the surface forces fluid through a low-head turbine coupled to a generator, where electricity is produced similar to conventional hydropower. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.
  • There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting entrapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

  • Oscillating wave surge devices typically have one end fixed to a substructure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body, driven by the horizontal motion of waves (surge), to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes. Rotary motion at a hinge may drive a generator to produce electricity, or the moving body may be used to pressurize a fluid.
  • Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts to water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of a point absorber.

Photo Credit: Aquamarine Power

Total Results: 514
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
D2.1 Wave Instrumentation Database Lawrence, J., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D2.13 Collation of Model Construction Methods Lopes, M., Candido, J., Mallen, L. November 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D2.28 Model Construction Methods Thiebaut, F., Sutton, G., Johnstone, C. October 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Development of an Electrical Power Take Off System for a Sea-Test Scaled Offshore Wave Energy Device O’Sullivana, D., et al. April 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave
Development of Invertebrate Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave
Direct drive surge wave energy converter with grid integration functionality Enferad, E., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? Valanko, S., Norkko, J., Norkko, A. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates
Dual wave farms and coastline dynamics: The role of inter-device spacing Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection Abanades, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Eco Wave Power Manzanillo I Project January 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Eco Wave Power wave energy power station Gibraltar May 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Ecological and morphological traits predict depth-generalist fishes on coral reefs Bridge, T., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale Scyphers, S., Powers, S., Heck, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Fish
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion Huang, S., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Chemicals, EMF, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops norvegicus Bender, A., Sunberg, J. September 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision Invertebrates
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave EMF
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Fluorometer Monitoring Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Ecosystem Processes
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
EMEC Billia Croo High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Collision Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
EMEC Scapa Flow Non Grid-Connected Wave Test Site September 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Energy and socio-economic benefits from the development of wave energy in Greece Lavidas, G. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Of Wave Energy Converters: A Review Riefolo, L., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays O'Boyle, L., Elsäßer, B., Whittaker, T. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimations Based on In-Situ Measurements Le Crom, I., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site (FaBTest) January 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Field Calibration a Tool for Acoustic Noise Prediction: The CALCOM'10 Data Set Felisberto, P., Jesus, S., Martins, N. November 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Noise
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Ecosystem Processes
Forecasting ocean wave energy: The ECMWF wave model and time series methods Reikard, G., Pinson, P., Bidlot, J. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave

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