Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 529
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
ETIP Ocean 2 January 2019 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
DTOceanPlus May 2019 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
MegaRoller May 2018 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Wave farm impact based on realistic wave-WEC interaction Carballo, R., Iglesias, G. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A fundamental coupling methodology for modeling near-field and far-field wave effects of floating structures and wave energy devices Stratigaki, V., Troch, P., Forehand, D. December 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The impact of energy extraction of wave energy converter arrays on wave climate under multi-directional seas Tay, Z., Venugopal, V. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Wave Swell Energy King Island Project March 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
EMEC Billia Croo Test Site: Environmental Appraisal Xodus Group March 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Acoustic impact of a wave energy converter in Mediterranean shallow waters Buscaino, G., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Fish
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection under sea level rise Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dual wave farms and coastline dynamics: The role of inter-device spacing Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wave Energy in Tropical Regions: Deployment Challenges, Environmental and Social Perspectives Felix, A., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Wave Energy Converter Arrays: Optimizing Power Production While Minimizing Environmental Effects Raghukumar, K., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Modelling Offshore Wave farms for Coastal Process Impact Assessment: Waves, Beach Morphology, and Water Users Stokes, C., Conley, D. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Working Group on Marine Benthal Renewable Developments Vanaverbeke, J., et al. January 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
An artificial neural network model of coastal erosion mitigation through wave farms Rodriguez-Delgado, C., Bergillos, R., Iglesias, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Dual wave farms for energy production and coastal protection Abanades, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Full life cycle assessment of two surge wave energy converters Karan, H., Thomson, R., Harrison, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Offshore underwater substation for wave energy converter arrays Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy

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