Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 502
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Kobald Marine Turbine: From the Testing Model to the Full Scale Prototype Calcagno, G., Moroso, A. November 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Scapa Flow Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: Environmental Impact Assessment Kregting, L., Elsäßer, B. June 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub Castellucci, V., Eriksson, M., Waters, R. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Beach response to wave energy converter farms acting as coastal defence Mendoza, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Challenging Best Knowledge to Real Conditions on the SEMREV Marine Test Site Perignon, Y., Le Crom, I. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimations Based on In-Situ Measurements Le Crom, I., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays O'Boyle, L., Elsäßer, B., Whittaker, T. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Nearshore assessment of wave energy resources in central Chile (2009–2010) Mediavilla, D., Sepulveda, H. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
A Bayesian approach to habitat suitability prediction Lockett, D. March 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Managing Eco-System Service Decisions Ullman, D., Halsey, K., Goldfinger, C. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
BioWave Port Fairy Pilot Wave Energy Project December 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter December 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Characterisation of the Biofouling Community on a Floating Wave Energy Device Nall, C., Schläppy, M., Guerin, A. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence Abanades, J. March 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Waves4Power Wave El Buoy February 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs Lunt, J., Reustle, J., Smee, D. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Wave hazards on microtidal shore platforms: testing the relationship between morphology and exposure Kennedy, D., Ierodiaconou, D., Weir, A. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats Fulton, C., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review Saleh, F., Weinstein, M. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Ecological and morphological traits predict depth-generalist fishes on coral reefs Bridge, T., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea Plummer, M., Feist, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Norgaard, J., Andersen, T. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries Karimpour, A., Chen, Q., Twilley, R. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Multi-criteria evaluation of wave energy projects on the south-east Australian coast Flocard, F., Ierodiaconou, D., Coghlan, I. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Model Experimental Study on Wave Dissipation Effect for Double-deck Monomer Floating Structure Zhou, C., Shang Guan, Z., Shen, L. December 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Fishing
OXYFLUX, an innovative wave-driven device for the oxygenation of deep layers in coastal areas: A physical investigation Antonini, A., Lamberti, A., Archetti, R. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change, Fishing
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy Osse, T., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Modeling of Wave Energy Absorption: a Case Study for a Fishing Pier in Brazil Dalla Vecchia, L., et al. January 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Fishing
Direct drive surge wave energy converter with grid integration functionality Enferad, E., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion Huang, S., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Semi-Active Control of Sound Radiated From an Elastic Circular Plate Integrated With Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorbers Hemmatian, M., Sedaghati, R. September 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? Valanko, S., Norkko, J., Norkko, A. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale Scyphers, S., Powers, S., Heck, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives Lehmann, M., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) Sierra, J., Casas-Prat, M., Campins, E. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
Biocide-Free Antifouling on Insulating Surface by Wave-Driven Triboelectrification-Induced Potential Oscillation Zhao, X., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Putting the Pieces Together: Alternatives Analysis and Decision Support Halsey, K., Manson, P. January 2012 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Phase II Cumulative Effects Framework Final Report Halsey, K., Radil, A. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Measurement of the Effect of Power Absorption in the Lee of a Wave Energy Converter Ashton, I., Johanning, L., Linfoot, B. June 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Settlement Agreement Ocean Power Technologies July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
REEFS: An Artificial Reef for Wave Energy Harnessing and Shore Protection – A New Concept Towards Multipurpose Sustainable Solutions de Almeida, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Fluorometer Monitoring Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Ecosystem
EMEC Billia Croo FLOWBEC Platform Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data July 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
D2.28 Model Construction Methods Thiebaut, F., Sutton, G., Johnstone, C. October 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Development of Invertebrate Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Wave power devices as artificial reefs Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. September 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
SOWFIA Deliverable 2.6 - Work Package 2 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Work Package 2 Findings Regarding Barriers and Accelerators of Wave Energy O'Callaghan, J., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable 3.5 - Work Package 3 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment Experience for Wave Energy Conley, D., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.2: Reports of Interactive Meetings with Policy Makers Magagna, D., Rousseau, N. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Renewables - Implications from a Wave-Energy Converter Deployment in Falmouth Bay, UK Blondel, P., Walsh, J. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Baselines and Monitoring Methods for Detecting Impacts of Hydrodynamic Energy Extraction on Intertidal Communities of Rocky Shores Want, A., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Climate Change
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.4: Interim Report on Barriers, Accelerators and Lessons Learned from all Wave Energy Site Experiences Arjona, E., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.2.1: Catalogue of Wave Energy Test Centres Mora-Figueroa, V., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.3.3: Interim WP3 Report Magagna, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D 3.1: Inventory of Environmental Impact Monitoring Activities at Wave & Tidal Energy Sites in Europe Final Report Conley, D., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.4 Interim Report: Critical Environmental Impacts for Relevant Socio-economic Activities and Mitigation Measures Including Main Conclusions and Feedback Analysis from Workshop B and Analysis of the Stakeholder Survey Simas, T., et al. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.5: Report of Final Project Conference, Aalborg, Denmark Perez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages Langhamer, O. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Assessment of Chemicals Released in the Marine Environment by Dielectric Elastomers Useful as Active Elements in Wave Energy Harvesters Zaltariov, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
The Role of Wave Energy Converter Farms on Coastal Protection in Eroding Deltas, Guadalfeo, Southern Spain Bergillos, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessment of the Motion of Wave Power Generation by Water Tank Test Yoshida, T., Kitazawa, D., Mizukami, Y. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave

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