Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 510
Title Authorsort descending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
EMEC Scapa Flow Non Grid-Connected Wave Test Site September 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Kaneohe Bay OPT Wave Project January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter 1:4 prototype January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Testing of Ocean Energy Buoy at Galway Bay, Ireland January 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OceanPlug Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Oceanlinx MK1 January 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK2 October 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK3 February 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oyster 1 at EMEC November 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Oyster 800 at EMEC June 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC October 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Perth Wave Energy Project November 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Pico Oscillating Water Column January 1999 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
SURGE Waveroller October 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Lysekil Wave Energy Site March 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Seabased at the Maren Site September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub November 2010 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general
Wave Rider Wave Energy Pilot Plant November 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Star Hanstholm September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
PMEC: Pacific Marine Energy Center Luke Hanna February 2013 Blog Article Wave
Tongatapu Wave Project Jonathan Whiting May 2013 Blog Article Wave
Whale Interactions with Wave Device Cables Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Wave
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Acoustic Field Calibration for Noise Prediction: the CALCOM'10 Data Set Martins, N., Felisberto, P., Jesus, S. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site Environmental Impact Statement Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Baseline Data and Power Analysis for the OWET Dungeness Crab and Fish Baseline Study Terrill, S., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Fish
Avian Radar Baseline Study: Final Survey Report for the Proposed Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Park Geo-Marine April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Colonization of Blue Mussels (Mytilus Edulis) on Offshore Wave Power Installations Langhamer, O. July 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Development of an Electrical Power Take Off System for a Sea-Test Scaled Offshore Wave Energy Device O’Sullivana, D., et al. April 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Scoping Report Killard Kavanagh, P. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Further Analysis Of Change In Nearshore Wave Climate Due To An Offshore Wave Farm: An Enhanced Case Study For The Wave Hub Site Smith, H., Pearce, C., Millar, D. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Impact of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Operation on Nearshore Processes Neill, S., Iglesias, G. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Lysekil Research Site, Sweden: A Status Update Lejerskog, E., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Electric Power Research Institute December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurements of Shoreline Wave Action to Establish Possible Environmental and Ecological Effects from Wave Energy Converter Arrays Beharie, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Modelling the Vertical Directivity of Noise from Underwater Drilling Ward, P., Needham, K. December 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise

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