Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 529
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Whale Interactions with Wave Device Cables Jonathan Whiting August 2013 Blog Article Wave
SOWFIA Deliverable D.3.3: Interim WP3 Report Magagna, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
SOWFIA Deliverable D5.5: Report of Final Project Conference, Aalborg, Denmark Perez-Collazo, C., Greaves, D. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
SOWFIA Deliverable 3.5 - Work Package 3 Final Report: Report on the Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment Experience for Wave Energy Conley, D., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
SOWFIA Deliverable D.4.6 - Final Work Package Report: Consenting Procedures Review with Guidelines for Expansion to Larger Projects and Approval Process Streamlining, Incorporating the Findings of Interim Report and Feedback from Workshop D Simas, T., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables December 2013 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans Wilhelmsson, D., Langhamer, O. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Magalen, J., Roberts, J. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Understanding the potential effects of wave energy devices on kelp biotopes Macleod, A., et al. January 2014 Report Wave Noise, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Wave Energy in Clatsop County, OR: An Economic Impact Analysis Northwest Economic Research Center January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Baselines and Monitoring Methods for Detecting Impacts of Hydrodynamic Energy Extraction on Intertidal Communities of Rocky Shores Want, A., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Climate Change
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Sotenäs Project January 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Falmouth Bay Test Site: Guide to Deployments and Application Process Requirements FaBTest February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Marine Energy Research Innovation and Knowledge Accelorator (MERIKA) March 2014 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Riding the waves: use of the Pelamis device by seabirds Jackson, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Static Device Seabirds
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Littoral Characterisation of West Mainland Orkney: The Relationship between Wave Energy, Topography and the Biological Community Want, A., Side, J., Bell, M. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Analysis of Experience from Environmental Impact Assessments of Wave Energy Test Centres Conley, D., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Beach response to wave energy converter farms acting as coastal defence Mendoza, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Plans Terminated Tehani Montaron May 2014 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Interactions of Marine and Avian Animals Around Marine Energy Devices in Scotland Molly Grear May 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Animals Interacting with Wave and Tidal Devices Andrea Copping July 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Perth Wave Energy Project November 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Modeling of Wave Energy Absorption: a Case Study for a Fishing Pier in Brazil Dalla Vecchia, L., et al. January 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Fishing
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
RiCORE Project January 2015 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale Scyphers, S., Powers, S., Heck, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Planning for Effects of Wave Energy Development Before Going to Sea Kelly Ruehl, Chris Chartrand, and Jesse Roberts February 2015 Blog Article Wave
Project to Assess Potential Impacts of the Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Energy Generation Facility on Migration and Habitat use of Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) Payne, J., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? Valanko, S., Norkko, J., Norkko, A. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Coastal impact of a hybrid marine farm operating close to the Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, L. May 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals

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