Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 510
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
North West Lewis Wave Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Farr Point Wave Array - Phase 1 Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
OceanPlug Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Pico Oscillating Water Column January 1999 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Islay Limpet Wave Power Plant Report The Queen’s University of Belfast April 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Wave Energy Centre Website Wave Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Wave
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Demonstration Project March 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Economical Considerations of Renewable Electric Energy Production - Especially Development of Wave Energy Leijon, M., et al. July 2003 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site October 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics
Wave Power in the US: Permitting and Jurisdictional Issues Ram, B., et al. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Environment Description for the EMEC Wave Test Site Billia Croo, Orkney Finn, M. January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Oceanlinx MK1 January 2005 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Dragon Mitigation Wave Dragon December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Social, Planning and Environmental Impact Sørensen, H., et al. January 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Lysekil Wave Energy Site March 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Wave Hub Development and Design Phase Final Design Report South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-Economics
Wave Climate Investigation for an Array of Wave Power Devices Venugopal, V., Smith, G. January 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Testing of Ocean Energy Buoy at Galway Bay, Ireland January 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device, Environmental Statement Volume 1: Non-Technical Summary PMSS April 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts Of Hydrokinetic And Wave Energy Conversion Technologies On Aquatic Environments Cada, G., et al. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-Economics
Wave power devices as artificial reefs Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. September 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Wave Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea and the Danish Part of the North Sea, with Reflections on the Skagerrak Henfridsson, U., et al. October 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Oceanlinx MK2 October 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Energy Ecological Effects Workshop: Ecological Assessment Briefing Paper McMurray, G. October 2007 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Offshore underwater substation for wave energy converter arrays Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Governmental Regulation of Ocean Wave Energy Converter Installations Vining, J., Muetze, A. October 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
The Kobald Marine Turbine: From the Testing Model to the Full Scale Prototype Calcagno, G., Moroso, A. November 2007 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Review of Wave Hub Technical Studies: Impacts on Inshore Surfing Beaches Black, K. December 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Socio-Economics
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter 1:4 prototype January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Quantifying "Exposure" with Cost Effective Wave Resource Measurements Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2008 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) January 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-Economics
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Maren, A Test Facility for the Bolgekraftverk Round - Review and Consequences Vattenfall May 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact and Appraisal - Planning Consent for the South West of England Wave Hub Harrington, N., Andina-Pendas, I. June 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Companhia da Energia Oceânica SA (CEO) - Aguçadoura July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics
Distribution and Movement Patterns of Gray Whales Off Central Oregon: Shore-Based Observations from Yaquina During the 2007/2008 Migration Mate, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wave Energy from the North Sea: Experiences from the Lysekil Research Site Leijon, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Wave Energy and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Development of the French Wave Energy Test Site SEM-REV Mouslim, H., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Kaneohe Bay OPT Wave Project January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Conversion Systems: Optimal Localization Procedure Benassai, G., Dattero, M., Maffucci, A. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Data and Power Analysis for the OWET Dungeness Crab and Fish Baseline Study Terrill, S., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Fish
Site d' Expérimentation en Mer pour la Récupération de l'Energie des Vagues (SEM-REV) January 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Artificial Reef Effect and Fouling Impacts on Offshore Wave Power Foundations and Buoys - A Pilot Study Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Possible Impact on Hydrography and Sediment Transport by Wave Power Park - Numerical Modelling Persson, O. April 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Navigational Safety Risk Assessment for the Wave Test Site at the European Marine Energy Centre Cantello, D. May 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Socio-Economics, Navigation
Wave Energy and Underwater Noise: State of Art and Uncertainties Patricio, S., Moura, A., Simas, T. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Development of Invertebrate Assemblages and Fish on Offshore Wave Power Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D., Engström, J. May 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Colonisation of Fish and Crabs of Wave Energy Foundations and the Effects of Manufactured Holes - A Field Experiment Langhamer, O., Wilhelmsson, D. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
Measurement of the Effect of Power Absorption in the Lee of a Wave Energy Converter Ashton, I., Johanning, L., Linfoot, B. June 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
EMEC Billia Croo Wildlife Observation Data June 2009 Dataset Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean wave energy overview and research at Oregon State University Brekken, T., von Jouanne, A., Han, H. June 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Colonization of Blue Mussels (Mytilus Edulis) on Offshore Wave Power Installations Langhamer, O. July 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Seabased at the Maren Site September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices Patricio, S., Soares, S., Sarmento, A. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Mutriku Wave Power Plant: From the Thinking out to the Reality Torre-Enciso, Y., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Star Hanstholm September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
SURGE Waveroller October 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Conversion and the Marine Environment: Colonization Patterns and Habitat Dynamics Langhamer, O. October 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Oyster 1 at EMEC November 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Wave
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
'You don't do a chemistry experiment in your best china': Symbolic interpretations of place and technology in a wave energy case McLachlan, C. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics
Offshore Ocean Wave Energy: A Summer 2009 Technology and Market Assessment Electric Power Research Institute December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-Economics

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