Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 697
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Large-Scale Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The impacts of tidal turbines on water levels in a shallow estuary Garcia-Oliva, M., Djordjević, S., Tabor, G. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Sea Generation January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Transdisciplinary Sustainability Science Research for the Responsible Development of Tidal Power Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
The Modelling of Tidal Turbine Farms using Multi-Scale, Unstructured Mesh Models Kramer, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Muskeget Channel Tidal Energy Project: A Unique Case Study in the Licensing and Permitting of a Tidal Energy Project in Massachusetts Barrett, S. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
The Power Potential Of Tidal Currents In Channels Garrett, C., Cummins, P. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Practice of Comprehensive Silt Proof Measures in Tide Power Stations Liu, X., Fagong, L. September 2001 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Reality of Environmental Compliance: A Tidal Perspective Barr, S. April 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Regulation of Tidal Energy Development Off Nova Scotia: Navigating Foggy Waters Doelle, M., et al. September 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Role of Tidal Asymmetry in Characterising the Tidal Energy Resource of Orkney Neill, S., Hashemi, M., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Tidal-Stream Energy Resource in Passamaquoddy-Cobscook Bays: A Fresh Look at an Old Story Brooks, D. November 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The trade-off between tidal-turbine array yield and environmental impact: A habitat suitability modelling approach du Feu, R., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates
The Use of Acoustic Devices to Warn Marine Mammals of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices Wilson, B., Carter, C. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
The Value of Delay in Tidal Energy Development MacDonald, S. December 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Three‐dimensional movements of harbour seals in a tidally energetic channel: Application of a novel sonar tracking system Hastie, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning Hooper, T., Austen, M. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Ecosystem
Tidal Current Energy Assessment For Johnstone Strait, Vancouver Island Sutherland, G., Foreman, M., Garrett, C. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Current Power Development in Korea Lee, K., et al. November 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Current Power Resources and Influence of Sea-Level Rise in the Coastal Waters of Kinmen Island, Taiwan Chen, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Energy Community Engagement Handbook Isaacman, L., Colton, J. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Tidal Energy Fish Impact: Method Development to Determine the Impact of Open Water Tidal Energy Converters on Fish Smit, M., et al. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Tidal energy machines: A comparative life cycle assessment study Walker, S., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Tidal Energy Scenario Analysis: Holistic Stakeholder Considerations for Sustainable Development McTiernan, K. January 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal Energy, Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals Carter, C., Wilson, B., Burrows, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Tidal Flows in Te Aumiti (French Pass), South Island, New Zealand Stevens, C., et al. November 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Lagoons: Another Technique for Capturing Marine Renewable Energy Matthew Preisser July 2016 Blog Article Tidal
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal range energy resource and optimization - Past perspectives and future challenges Neill, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal range technologies and state of the art in review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Large Deep Strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait Stevens, C., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Tidal stream energy impact on the transient and residual flow in an estuary: A 3D analysis Sanchez, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Tidal stream energy impacts on estuarine circulation Ramos, V., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Tidal Turbulence Spectra from a Compliant Mooring Thomson, J., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
TidGen Power System Commercialization Project Final Technical Report ORPC Maine December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tocardo InToTidal - EMEC May 2017 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Torr Head Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Torr Head Tidal Energy Array EIA Scoping Report Tidal Ventures June 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Tracking Porpoise Underwater Movements in Tidal Rapids using Drifting Hydrophone Arrays. Filling a Key Information Gap for Assessing Collision Risk Gordon, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tracking Technologies for Quantifying Marine Mammal Interactions with Tidal Turbines: Pitfalls and Possibilities Hastie, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines Sangiuliano, S. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Uldolmok Tidal Power Station May 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Understanding Benthic Productivity on Artificial Structures: Maximising the Benefit of Marine Renewable Energy Devices May 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Understanding How Marine Renewable Device Operations Influence Fine Scale Habitat Use & Behaviour of Marine Vertebrates (RESPONSE) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Marine Mammals
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Update on the Marine Environmental Consequences of Tidal Power Development in the Upper Reaches of the Bay of Fundy Gordon, D., Dadswell, M. June 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
US Department of Energy (DOE) National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Scaled Model Testing of DOE Reference Turbines Neary, V., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Use of Animal Tracking Technology to Assess Potential Risks of Tidal Turbine Interactions with Fish Redden, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Using a Spatial Overlap Approach to Estimate the Risk of Collisions between Deep Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines: A Review of Potential Methods and Approaches Waggitt, J., Scott, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Using Coupled Hydrodynamic Biogeochemical Models to Predict the Effects of Tidal Turbine Arrays on Phytoplankton Dynamics Schuchert, P., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem
Using Drifting Passive Echolocation Loggers to Study Harbour Porpoises in Tidal-Stream Habitats Wilson, B., Benjamins, S., Elliot, J. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Using Hydroacoustics to Understand Fish Presence and Vertical Distribution in a Tidally Dynamic Region Targeted for Energy Extraction Viehman, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Variability in Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, and Implications for Changes due to Tidal Power Extraction Ashall, L., Mulligan, R., Law, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Voith HyTide at EMEC September 2013 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Wake Effects in Tidal Current Turbine Farms Macleod, A., et al. January 2002 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Wanxiang-I Project January 2002 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Wanxiang-II Project January 2005 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy Johnson, K., Kerr, S. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. March 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
West Islay Tidal Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Western Passage Tidal Energy Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Westray South Tidal Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Whale To Turbine Impact Using The GPU Based SPH-LSM Method Longshaw, S., Stansby, P., Rogers, B. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Yell Sound September 2002 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal

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