Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Tidal Energy

 

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Titlesort ascending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
EMEC Fall of Warness Boat-Based Wildlife Surveys (RESPONSE Project) May 2012 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave EMF
Efficient unstructured mesh generation for marine renewable energy applications Avdis, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Effects of Hydrokinetic Energy Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport at São Marcos Bay, Brazil González-Gorbeña, E., et al. August 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Effects of Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Intertidal Ecosystems of the Minas Basin van Proosdij, D., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Effects of a Tidal Lagoon on the Hydrodynamics of Swansea Bay, Wales, UK Horrillo-Caraballo, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Effect Of Tidal Stream Power Generation On The Region-wide Circulation In A Shallow Sea Shapiro, G. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism, Social & Economic Data
Dynamics of a Floating Platform Mounting a Hydrokinetic Turbine Dewhurst, T., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates
Diving Behaviour of Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential for Interactions with Tidal Stream Energy Developments Masden, E., Foster, S., Jackson, A. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds
Development of Marine Mammal Observation Methods for Vantage Point Surveys in Ramsey Sound Nuuttila, H., Mendzil, A. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Development of a Stereo Camera System for Monitoring Hydrokinetic Turbines Joslin, J., Polagye, B., Parker-Stetter, S. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Development and the Environmental Impact Analysis of Tidal Current Energy Turbines in China Liu, Y., Ma, C., Jiang, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow
Developing Capabilities for Tidal Hydrokinetic Blade Strike Monitoring Polagye, B., et al. September 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Determining the Water Column Usage by Seals in the Brims Lease Site Evers, C., et al. November 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Avoidance Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Detecting Potential and Actual Turbine-Marine Life Interactions: A Call for the Development of Best Practices Redden, A. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish, Marine Mammals
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Depth Averaged Water Levels for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents San Juan Islands Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Tacoma Narrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Sequim Bay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Admiralty Inlet Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Deployment characterization of a floatable tidal energy converter on a tidal channel, Ria Formosa, Portugal Pacheco, A., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
D2.7 Tidal Measurement Best Practice Manual Elsaesser, B., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
D2.2 Collation of Tidal Test Options McCombes, T., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
D2.18 Tidal Data Analysis Best Practice Grant, A., McCombes, T., Johnstone, C. October 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
D2.16 Tidal Test Parameter Overview Germain, G. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Current Policy and Technology for Tidal Current Energy in Korea Ko, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cross Coupling between Device Level CFD and Oceanographic Models Applied to Multiple TISECs in Minas Passage Klaptocz, V., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Confusion Reigns? A Review of Marine Megafauna Interactions with Tidal-Stream Environments Benjamins, S., et al. August 2015 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Comparing nekton distributions at two tidal energy sites suggests potential for generic environmental monitoring Wiesebron, L., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Comparing environmental effects of Rance and Severn barrages Kirby, R., Retière. C. March 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Comparative effects of climate change and tidal stream energy extraction in the NW European continental shelf De Dominicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Community Energy and Emissions Planning for Tidal Current Turbines: A Case Study of the Municipalities of the Southern Gulf Islands Region, British Columbia Sangiuliano, S. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Community and Business Toolkit for Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S., Colton, J. March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Avoidance, Collision Fish
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2014 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Fish
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project September 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Clarence Strait Tidal Energy Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
China Funds Development Of New Tidal Current Energy Devices Yanbo, G., Yan, L., Changlei, M. April 2011 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Characteristics of Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States Dreyer, S., Polis, H., Jenkins, L. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Changes in Area, Geomorphology and Sediment Nature of Salt Marshes in the Oosterschelde Estuary (SW Netherlands) Due to Tidal Changes de Jong, D., de Jong, Z., Mulder, J. May 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates Fox, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Cape Sharp Tidal Environmental Effects Monitoring Program 2018 Cape Sharp Tidal July 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Cape Breton Resource Assessment McMillan, J., et al. August 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Can tidal stream turbines change the tides in the Pentland Firth, and is there an acceptable limit? Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Physical Environment
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Broadband Acoustic Environment at a Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Xu, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Brims Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Bottom substrate and associated epibenthic biota of the force tidal energy test site in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy Morrison, K., Redden, A. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Black Rock Tidal Power Grand Passage MRE Permit Black Rock Tidal Power January 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Better Together: The Implications of Tidal Resource Interactions from Resource Calculation to Policy and Governance Woolf, D., Easton, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Baseline Presence of and Effects of Tidal Turbine Installation and Operations on Harbour Porpoise in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, Canada Tollit, D., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
BaiShakou Tidal Power Station August 1978 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC August 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Assessment of Zooplankton Injury and Mortality Associated With Underwater Turbines for Tidal Energy Production Schlezinger, D., Taylor, C., Howes, B. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave

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