Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk Hastie, G., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Adjusting the Financial Risk of Tidal Current Projects by Optimising the 'Installed Capacity/Capacity Factor'-Ratio Already During the Feasibility Stage Bucher, R., Couch, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
An Introduction to Marine Renewable Energy Sheilds, M. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Physics and Hydrodynamic Setting of Marine Renewable Energy Woolf, D., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Determining the Water Column Usage by Seals in the Brims Lease Site Evers, C., et al. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Tool for Simulating Collision Probabilities of Animals with Marine Renewable Energy Devices Schmitt, P., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Nova Bluemull Sound - Appropriate Assessment Marine Scotland January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Nova Innovation - Shetland Tiday Array (Bluemull Sound) March 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Perpetuus Tidal Energy Centre (PTEC) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Noise Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Interactions of Tidal Lagoons: A Comparison of Industry Perspectives Mackinnon, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Multi-Dimensional Optimisation of Tidal Energy Converters Array Layouts Considering Geometric, Economic and Environmental Constraints González-Gorbeña, E., Qassim, R., Rosman, P. February 2018 Journal Article Tidal
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Simulating Current-Energy Converters: SNL-EFDC Model Development, Verification, and Parameter Estimation James, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Farms on Tidal Stream Energy Generation O'Donncha, F., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Fish
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
First in situ Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Marine Mammals during Operation of a Tidal Turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales Malinka, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Söderfors Project March 2013 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Modelling the Hydrodynamic and Morphological Impacts of a Tidal Stream Development in Ramsey Sound Haverson, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Legal and Policy
Development and the Environmental Impact Analysis of Tidal Current Energy Turbines in China Liu, Y., Ma, C., Jiang, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Using Coupled Hydrodynamic Biogeochemical Models to Predict the Effects of Tidal Turbine Arrays on Phytoplankton Dynamics Schuchert, P., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes
Fine-Scale Hydrodynamic Metrics Underlying Predator Occupancy Patterns in Tidal Stream Environments Lieber, L., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. July 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Deployment characterization of a floatable tidal energy converter on a tidal channel, Ria Formosa, Portugal Pacheco, A., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK Xia, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Potential Environmental Effects of Leading Edge Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Sudderth, E., et al. May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Can tidal stream turbines change the tides in the Pentland Firth, and is there an acceptable limit? Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Physical Environment
Assessing the Impact of Rows of Tidal-Stream Turbines on the Overtides of the M2 Potter, D, Folkard, A., Ilić, S. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Physical Environment
OERA Webinar Series: Finite Element Analysis to Assess Fish Mortality from Interactions with Tidal Turbine Blades Fyffe, N. May 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Comparative effects of climate change and tidal stream energy extraction in the NW European continental shelf De Dominicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment
Monitoring the environmental interactions of tidal devices - how do we achieve what is required in a practical and cost effective manner whilst retaining focus on the key issues to assist the consenting of future projects? Foubister, L. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels Musa, M., Heisel, M., Guala, M. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Local scour around a model hydrokinetic turbine in an erodible channel Hill, C., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Laboratory study on the effects of hydro kinetic turbines on hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Tidal Energy Fish Impact: Method Development to Determine the Impact of Open Water Tidal Energy Converters on Fish Smit, M., et al. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Human dimensions of tidal energy: A review of theories and frameworks Jenkins, L., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning Hooper, T., Austen, M. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Sensitivity of tidal lagoon and barrage hydrodynamic impacts and energy outputs to operational characteristics Angeloudis, A., Falconer, R. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Tocardo InToTidal - EMEC May 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Applying a simple model for estimating the likelihood of collision of marine mammals with tidal turbines Copping, A., Grear, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges Pisacane, G., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Efficient unstructured mesh generation for marine renewable energy applications Avdis, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Wave and Tidal Energy Johnson, K., Kerr, S. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
The effects of array configuration on the hydro-environmental impacts of tidal turbines Fallon, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating biological characteristics of marine renewable energy sites for environmental monitoring Wiesebron, L. January 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Noise characterization of a subsea tidal kite Schmitt, P., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Cape Breton Resource Assessment McMillan, J., et al. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of Marine Mammal Observation Methods for Vantage Point Surveys in Ramsey Sound Nuuttila, H., Mendzil, A. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2014 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Fish
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Cape Sharp Tidal Environmental Effects Monitoring Program 2018 Cape Sharp Tidal July 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Current Power Resources and Influence of Sea-Level Rise in the Coastal Waters of Kinmen Island, Taiwan Chen, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Black Rock Tidal Power Grand Passage MRE Permit Black Rock Tidal Power January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan: Shetland Tidal Array, Bluemull Sound McPherson, G. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
An assessment of the impacts of a tidal renewable energy scheme on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK Kadiri, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on Assessment of Proposed Tidal Barrage Schemes in Terms of Environmental Impacts Wu, Y., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal range energy resource and optimization - Past perspectives and future challenges Neill, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal range technologies and state of the art in review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Severn Tidal Power Feasibility Study: Conclusions and Summary Report Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC) October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems: Using systems thinking in resource characterization and estimating costs for the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents Domenech, J., Eveleigh, T., Tanju, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Providing ecological context to anthropogenic subsea noise: Assessing listening space reductions of marine mammals from tidal energy devices Pine, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine Joy, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Studies of Marine Mammals in Welsh High Tidal Waters Gordon, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals

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