Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Update on the Marine Environmental Consequences of Tidal Power Development in the Upper Reaches of the Bay of Fundy Gordon, D., Dadswell, M. June 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Instream Tidal Power in North America: Environmental and Permitting Issues Devine Tarbell & Associates June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Effects of Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Intertidal Ecosystems of the Minas Basin van Proosdij, D., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Appropriateness of Existing Monitoring Studies for the Fundy Tidal Energy Project and Considerations for Monitoring Commercial Scale Scenarios Fisheries and Oceans Canada June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Fish
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
FORCE Environmental Effects Monitoring Report September 2009 to January 2011 FORCE January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Strike of Adult Killer Whales by an OpenHydro Tidal Turbine Blade Carlson, T., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
A 1:8.7 Scale Water Tunnel Verification & Validation of an Axial Flow Water Turbine Fontaine, A., et al. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Fish
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
HS1000 1 MW Tidal Turbine at EMEC: Supporting Documentation Xodus AURORA August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Admiralty Inlet Post-Installation Environmental Monitoring Summary Polagye, B. April 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
MR7.2.3 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Field Tests of Turbine Blade-Seal Carcass Collisions Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.2 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Examination of Models for Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Seals and Tidal Turbines Lonergan, M., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.1 Collision Risk: A Brief Review of Available Information on Behaviour of Mammals and Birds in High Tidal Energy Areas Onoufriou, J., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Birds, Marine Mammals
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Sea Generation January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Initial Consultation Document for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power October 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Method for Identification of Doppler Noise Levels in Turbulent Flow Measurements Dedicated to Tidal Energy Richard, J., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Evaluating the potential impacts of tidal power schemes on estuarine waterbirds Burton, N., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Waterfowl
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
A Comparison of Underwater Noise at Two High Energy Sites Willis, M., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Effects of a Tidal Lagoon on the Hydrodynamics of Swansea Bay, Wales, UK Horrillo-Caraballo, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Underwater sound on wave & tidal test sites: improving knowledge of acoustic impact of Marine Energy Convertors Giry, C., Bald, J., Uriarte, A. June 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Comparing environmental effects of Rance and Severn barrages Kirby, R., Retière. C. March 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Influence of Tidal Energy Converters on sediment dynamics in tidal channel Auguste, C., et al. September 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment
Winter and summer differences in probability of fish encounter (spatial overlap) with MHK devices Viehman, H., Boucher, T., Redden, A. August 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Simulating the environmental impact of tidal turbines on the seabed Vybulkova, L., Vezza, M., Brown, R. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Couch, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling and Validation of a Cross Flow Turbine using Free Vortex Models and an improved 2D Lift Model Urbina, R., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
US Department of Energy (DOE) National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Scaled Model Testing of DOE Reference Turbines Neary, V., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Sand Bank Dynamics Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. May 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Energy Extraction on Tidal Flow Development Couch, S., Bryden, I. July 2004 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Development of a Stereo Camera System for Monitoring Hydrokinetic Turbines Joslin, J., Polagye, B., Parker-Stetter, S. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Characteristics of Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Numerical Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Farms on Tidal Stream Energy Generation O'Donncha, F., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Array Optimization for Tidal Energy Extraction in a Tidal Channel - A Numerical Modeling Analysis Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Hydrokinetic Turbine Models in Complex Channel Topography: Local Scour, Sediment Transport and Device Performance Hill, C., et al. July 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment Yang, Z., Wang, T. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Advancing a Key Consenting Risk for Tidal Energy: The Risk of Marine Mammal Collision for In-Stream Tidal Energy Devices Booth, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
A French Application Case of Tidal Turbine Certification Paboeuf, S., Macadre, L., Sun, P. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Modelling the Response of Sandbank Dynamics to Tidal Energy Extraction Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sea Bed Morphology Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals

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