Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK Xia, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Scaled Tidal Stream Turbine over Mobile Sediment Beds Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Impact of Tidal Energy Arrays Located in Regions of Tidal Asymmetry Neill, S. March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Couch, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays on the Dynamics of Headland Sand Banks Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Sand Bank Dynamics Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. May 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impact of Tidal-Stream Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sea Bed Morphology Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, NS Smith, P., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Implications of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sedimentary Processes within Shallow Intertidal Environments van Proosdij, D., et al. March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
In-Situ Ecological Interactions with a Deployed Tidal Energy Device; An Observational Pilot Study Broadhurst, M., Barr, S., Orme, D. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Fish
In-Stream Tidal Energy Potential of Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Kawase, M., Malte, P. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Tidal Physical Environment
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Influence of Site Bathymetry on Tidal Resource Assessment Perez-Ortiz, A., et al. August 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Influence of Tidal Energy Converters on sediment dynamics in tidal channel Auguste, C., et al. September 2019 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Initial Consultation Document for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power October 2003 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Instream Tidal Power in North America: Environmental and Permitting Issues Devine Tarbell & Associates June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Interaction between instream axial flow hydrokinetic turbines and uni-directional flow bedforms Hill, C., Musa, M., Guala, M. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Tidal Physical Environment
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Interactions of Marine and Avian Animals Around Marine Energy Devices in Scotland Molly Grear May 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Intertidal Ecology and Potential Power Impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada Gordon, D. Jr. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Birds, Shorebirds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Jiangxia Pilot Tidal Power Plant January 1980 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Kvalsund Tidal Turbine Prototype August 2003 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
La Rance Tidal Power Plant: 40-Year Operation Feedback - Lessons Learnt de Laleu, V. October 2009 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Laboratory study on the effects of hydro kinetic turbines on hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Land-Based Infrared Imagery for Marine Mammal Detection Graber, J. April 2011 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase MeyGen May 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Life cycle assessment of the Seagen marine current turbine Douglas, C., Harrison, G., Chick, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Limits To Tidal Current Power Garrett, C., Cummins, P. November 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Local scour around a model hydrokinetic turbine in an erodible channel Hill, C., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Localised anthropogenic wake generates a predictable foraging hotspot for top predators Lieber, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Birds, Seabirds
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish, Marine Mammals
Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols for Tidal Power Peterson, M. February 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges Pisacane, G., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems: Using systems thinking in resource characterization and estimating costs for the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents Domenech, J., Eveleigh, T., Tanju, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Robertson, F., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: Understanding True Collision Risk Sparling, C., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: What are the Issues of Concern and how are they being Resolved? Wilson, B., Hastie, G., Benjamins, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Radar Derived Current Vector Mapping at a Planned Commercial Tidal Stream Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Bell, P., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Marine renewables and coastal communities—Experiences from the offshore oil industry in the 1970s and their relevance to marine renewables in the 2010s Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Spatial Planning from an Irish perspective: Towards Best Practice in Integrated Maritime Governance Flannery, W. July 2011 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Noise
Measuring The Environmental Costs Of Tidal Power Plant Construction: A Choice Experiment Study Lee, J., Yoo, S. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Method for Identification of Doppler Noise Levels in Turbulent Flow Measurements Dedicated to Tidal Energy Richard, J., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Methodology for Estimating Tidal Current Energy Resources and Power Production by Tidal In-Stream Energy Conversion (TISEC) Devices Hagerman, G., Polagye, B. June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Methodology for Tidal Turbine Representation in Ocean Circulation Model Roc, T., Conley, D., Greaves, D. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I November 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Minas Passage Lobster Tracking Study 2011-2013 Morrison, K., Broome, J., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500 June 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Modeling and Validation of a Cross Flow Turbine using Free Vortex Models and an improved 2D Lift Model Urbina, R., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Modeling effects of a tidal barrage on water quality indicator distribution in the Severn Estuary Gao, G., Falconer, R., Lin, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Model Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Modelling impacts of tidal stream turbines on surface waves Li, X., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Seabed Shear Stress, Sediment Mobility, and Sediment Transport in the Bay of Fundy Li, M., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Modelling Techniques for Underwater Noise Generated by Tidal Turbines in Shallow Waters Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Fairley, I., Karunarathna, H., Chatzirodou, A. January 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Far Field Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Tidal Farms - A Focus on Tidal Regime, Intertidal Zones and Flushing Nash, S., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Modelling the Hydrodynamic and Morphological Impacts of a Tidal Stream Development in Ramsey Sound Haverson, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Response of Sandbank Dynamics to Tidal Energy Extraction Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Monitoring Benthic Habitats and Biodiversity at the Tidal Energy Site of Paimpol-Brehat (Brittany, France) Carlier, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Monitoring getijdenturbines Oosterscheldekering Jaarrapportage 2018 Leopold, M., Scholl, M. March 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds

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