Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Tidal Energy

 

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Authorsort ascending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
An Integrated Solution to Real Time Marine Mammal Monitoring for Tidal Turbines Bromley, P., Boake, C., Broudic, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.1 Collision Risk: A Brief Review of Available Information on Behaviour of Mammals and Birds in High Tidal Energy Areas Onoufriou, J., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.2 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Examination of Models for Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Seals and Tidal Turbines Lonergan, M., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.3 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Field Tests of Turbine Blade-Seal Carcass Collisions Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth and Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Impact of Scaled Tidal Stream Turbine over Mobile Sediment Beds Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
A Finite Element Circulation Model for Embayments with Drying Intertidal Areas and its Application to the Quoddy Region of the Bay of Fundy Greenberg, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Tidal-Stream Energy Resource in Passamaquoddy-Cobscook Bays: A Fresh Look at an Old Story Brooks, D. November 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Sea Generation January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Drifting Passive Echolocation Loggers to Study Harbour Porpoises in Tidal-Stream Habitats Wilson, B., Benjamins, S., Elliot, J. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds
Whale To Turbine Impact Using The GPU Based SPH-LSM Method Longshaw, S., Stansby, P., Rogers, B. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
HS1000 1 MW Tidal Turbine at EMEC: Supporting Documentation Xodus AURORA August 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Savidge, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada [Presentation] Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Fuzzy Impact Assessment on the Landscape: The Kobold Platform in the Strait of Messina Case Study Bergamascoa, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Proceedings of the 2nd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Proceedings of the 3rd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford April 2014 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Proceedings of the Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2012 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Impact of Tidal Energy Arrays Located in Regions of Tidal Asymmetry Neill, S. March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Water Quality
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Detecting Potential and Actual Turbine-Marine Life Interactions: A Call for the Development of Best Practices Redden, A. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish, Marine Mammals
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomichek, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: What are the Issues of Concern and how are they being Resolved? Wilson, B., Hastie, G., Benjamins, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Multi-Disciplinary Risk Identification and Evaluation for the Tidal Industry Kolios, A., Read, G., Loannou, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
A Review of Marine Bird Diving Behaviour: Assessing Underwater Collision Risk with Tidal Turbines Robbins, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds, Seabirds
Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, EMF, Entrapment, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Tracking Technologies for Quantifying Marine Mammal Interactions with Tidal Turbines: Pitfalls and Possibilities Hastie, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Advancing a Key Consenting Risk for Tidal Energy: The Risk of Marine Mammal Collision for In-Stream Tidal Energy Devices Booth, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sea Bed Morphology Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H. June 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Modelling the Response of Sandbank Dynamics to Tidal Energy Extraction Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
A Comparison of Numerical Modelling Techniques for Tidal Stream Turbine Analysis Masters, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal Energy, Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals Carter, C., Wilson, B., Burrows, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Tracking Porpoise Underwater Movements in Tidal Rapids using Drifting Hydrophone Arrays. Filling a Key Information Gap for Assessing Collision Risk Gordon, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Movement Patterns of Seals in Tidally Energetic Sites: Implications for Renewable Energy Development Hastie, G., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines: Understanding True Collision Risk Sparling, C., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Monitoring Benthic Habitats and Biodiversity at the Tidal Energy Site of Paimpol-Brehat (Brittany, France) Carlier, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Better Together: The Implications of Tidal Resource Interactions from Resource Calculation to Policy and Governance Woolf, D., Easton, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Modelling of Tidal Turbine Farms using Multi-Scale, Unstructured Mesh Models Kramer, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Role of Tidal Asymmetry in Characterising the Tidal Energy Resource of Orkney Neill, S., Hashemi, M., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Use of Animal Tracking Technology to Assess Potential Risks of Tidal Turbine Interactions with Fish Redden, A., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Marine Radar Derived Current Vector Mapping at a Planned Commercial Tidal Stream Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Bell, P., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Noise
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Tidal Lagoons: Another Technique for Capturing Marine Renewable Energy Matthew Preisser July 2016 Blog Article Tidal
Bottom substrate and associated epibenthic biota of the force tidal energy test site in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy Morrison, K., Redden, A. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Acoustic Tracking of Fish Movements in the Minas Passage and FORCE Demonstration Area: Pre-Turbine Baseline Studies (2011-2013) Redden, A., Stokesbury, M. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Minas Passage Lobster Tracking Study 2011-2013 Morrison, K., Broome, J., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Temporal Patterns in Minas Basin Intertidal Weir Fish Catches and Presence of Harbour Porpoise during April - August 2013 Baker, M., Reed, M., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Assessing Marine Mammal Presence in and Near the FORCE Lease Area During Winter and Early Spring - Addressing Baseline Data Gaps and Sensor Performance Redden, A., Porskamp, P. January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
PLAT-O at EMEC September 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Brims Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Environmental Scoping Report: Brims Tidal Array OpenHydro, SSE Renewables August 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Are Larvae and other Planktonic Organisms at Risk from Tidal Energy Development? Andrea Copping August 2016 Blog Article Tidal
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Avoidance, Collision Marine Mammals
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates
HS1000 at EMEC December 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Torr Head Tidal Energy Array EIA Scoping Report Tidal Ventures June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy

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