Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Interaction between instream axial flow hydrokinetic turbines and uni-directional flow bedforms Hill, C., Musa, M., Guala, M. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Tidal Physical Environment
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds
Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress Gillibrand, P., Walters, R., McIlvenny, J. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays on the Dynamics of Headland Sand Banks Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Model Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Methodology for Tidal Turbine Representation in Ocean Circulation Model Roc, T., Conley, D., Greaves, D. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Measuring The Environmental Costs Of Tidal Power Plant Construction: A Choice Experiment Study Lee, J., Yoo, S. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
The impacts of tidal turbines on water levels in a shallow estuary Garcia-Oliva, M., Djordjević, S., Tabor, G. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Current Power Resources and Influence of Sea-Level Rise in the Coastal Waters of Kinmen Island, Taiwan Chen, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on Assessment of Proposed Tidal Barrage Schemes in Terms of Environmental Impacts Wu, Y., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Presence of and Effects of Tidal Turbine Installation and Operations on Harbour Porpoise in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, Canada Tollit, D., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tidal range energy resource and optimization - Past perspectives and future challenges Neill, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal range technologies and state of the art in review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Optimisation of tidal turbine array layouts whilst limiting their hydro-environmental impact Phoenix, A., Nash, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment
Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems: Using systems thinking in resource characterization and estimating costs for the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents Domenech, J., Eveleigh, T., Tanju, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
An assessment of the impacts of a tidal renewable energy scheme on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK Kadiri, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Providing ecological context to anthropogenic subsea noise: Assessing listening space reductions of marine mammals from tidal energy devices Pine, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine Joy, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Turbines’ effects on water renewal within a marine tidal stream energy site Guillou, N., Thiébot, J., Chapalain, G. December 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Noise Measurements Of A Prototype Tidal Energy Turbine Deveau, D., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Limits To Tidal Current Power Garrett, C., Cummins, P. November 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Modeling effects of a tidal barrage on water quality indicator distribution in the Severn Estuary Gao, G., Falconer, R., Lin, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
In-Stream Tidal Energy Potential of Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Kawase, M., Malte, P. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Tidal Physical Environment
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Intertidal Ecology and Potential Power Impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada Gordon, D. Jr. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Birds, Shorebirds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Fish
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental Appraisal (EA) for the Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Nautricity December 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Use of Static Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) for monitoring cetaceans at Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs) for Marine Scotland Embling, C., et al. October 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wave & Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Impacts on Fish and Shellfish Ecology Freeman, S., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Fish, Invertebrates
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Wave & Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Ornithological Impacts Kirby, A., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Birds
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Scoping Report: Brims Tidal Array OpenHydro, SSE Renewables August 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
Torr Head Tidal Energy Array EIA Scoping Report Tidal Ventures June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Minas Passage Lobster Tracking Study 2011-2013 Morrison, K., Broome, J., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF
Bottom substrate and associated epibenthic biota of the force tidal energy test site in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy Morrison, K., Redden, A. January 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Acoustic Tracking of Fish Movements in the Minas Passage and FORCE Demonstration Area: Pre-Turbine Baseline Studies (2011-2013) Redden, A., Stokesbury, M. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Shapinsay Sound Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Temporal Patterns in Minas Basin Intertidal Weir Fish Catches and Presence of Harbour Porpoise during April - August 2013 Baker, M., Reed, M., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Assessing Marine Mammal Presence in and Near the FORCE Lease Area During Winter and Early Spring - Addressing Baseline Data Gaps and Sensor Performance Redden, A., Porskamp, P. January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Navigation Risk Assessment Update: Fall of Warness Anatec November 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Navigation
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Approach to Sustainable Development RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework for Wales: Stage 1 Report Final Kazer, S., Golding, T. November 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Review of the Policy Context for Sustainable Marine Renewable Development McGarry, T. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Process RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Nova Bluemull Sound - Appropriate Assessment Marine Scotland January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Studies of Marine Mammals in Welsh High Tidal Waters Gordon, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of Marine Mammal Observation Methods for Vantage Point Surveys in Ramsey Sound Nuuttila, H., Mendzil, A. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat

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