Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 696
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Tidal Power Project Wright, G. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
EMEC Shapinsay Sound Non Grid-Connected Nursery Tidal Test Site September 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Modelling the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Tidal Flow in the Pentland Firth Baston, S., Harris, R. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Developing Capabilities for Tidal Hydrokinetic Blade Strike Monitoring Polagye, B., et al. September 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
A Comparison of Underwater Noise at Two High Energy Sites Willis, M., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Couch, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Life cycle comparison of a wave and tidal energy device Walker, S., Howell, R. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Far-Field Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Minas Passage on Tidal Circulation in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine Using a Nested-Grid Coastal Circulation Model Hasegawa, D., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Assessment of the Potential of Tidal Power from Minas Passage and Minas Basin Karsten, R., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Hydrodynamic Impacts of Power Generation by Tidal Lagoons in the Bay of Fundy Cornett, A., Cousineau, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Challenges and Opportunities in Tidal and Wave Power Jacobson, P., Rao, K. December 2011 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurements of Turbulence at Two Tidal Energy Sites in Puget Sound, WA (USA) Thomson, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
HS1000 at EMEC December 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas (MESMA) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Quantifying Benefits and Impacts of Fishing Exclusion Zones on Bio-Resources around Marine Renewable Energy Installations (QBEX) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Admiralty Inlet Basin Flow Model Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
A Review of the Potential Water Quality Impacts of Tidal Renewable Energy Systems Kadiri, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Arrays on the Dynamics of Headland Sand Banks Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project Pilot January 2012 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
The Effect of Tidal Power Generation on Sediment Transport in Muskeget Channel University of Massachusetts January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Diving Bird Collision Risk Assessment Framework for Tidal Turbines January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Depth Averaged Currents at Admiralty Inlet Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Scoping Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia: A Research Synthesis & Priorities for Future Action Howell, A., Drake, C. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Subtidal Benthic Video and Benthic Infauna Survey and Intertidal Cable Crossing Survey MER Assessment Corporation January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Far-Field Modelling of the Hydro-Environmental Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Large Scale Interactive Coupled 3D Modelled for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact (TeraWatt) February 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Large Deep Strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait Stevens, C., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Sediment-Laden Ice Measurements and Observations, and Implications for Potential Interactions of Ice and Large Woody Debris with Tidal Turbines in Minas Passage Sanderson, B., Redden, A., Broome, J. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour February 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Broadband Acoustic Environment at a Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Xu, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Seapower GEMSTAR System March 2012 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Depth Averaged Currents at Sequim Bay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents San Juan Islands Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Tacoma Narrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Water Levels for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2012 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Sub-Mesoscale Flow Regime Modeling and the Influence of Energy Extraction at a Tidal Energy Site April 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters April 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Fish in a Tidally Dynamic Region in Maine: Hydroacoustic Assessments in Relation to Tidal Power Development Viehman, H. May 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
EMEC Fall of Warness Boat-Based Wildlife Surveys (RESPONSE Project) May 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Appropriateness of Existing Monitoring Studies for the Fundy Tidal Energy Project and Considerations for Monitoring Commercial Scale Scenarios Fisheries and Oceans Canada June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Fish
Assessing the Far Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on the Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf Sheng, J., et al. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Fluorometer Monitoring Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on Assessment of Proposed Tidal Barrage Schemes in Terms of Environmental Impacts Wu, Y., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Cape Breton Resource Assessment McMillan, J., et al. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
SNL-EFDC Model Application to Cobscook Bay, ME Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project September 2012 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Development of a Stereo Camera System for Monitoring Hydrokinetic Turbines Joslin, J., Polagye, B., Parker-Stetter, S. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
D2.18 Tidal Data Analysis Best Practice Grant, A., McCombes, T., Johnstone, C. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.2 Collation of Tidal Test Options McCombes, T., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Tidal Energy Community Engagement Handbook Isaacman, L., Colton, J. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
The Ecology of Marine Tidal Race Environments and the Impact of Tidal Energy Development Broadhurst, M. January 2013 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, NS Smith, P., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Modelling Foraging Strategies in High Energy Environments (FORSITE) January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise

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