Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Measuring The Environmental Costs Of Tidal Power Plant Construction: A Choice Experiment Study Lee, J., Yoo, S. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Methodology for Tidal Turbine Representation in Ocean Circulation Model Roc, T., Conley, D., Greaves, D. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Model Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Modeling and Validation of a Cross Flow Turbine using Free Vortex Models and an improved 2D Lift Model Urbina, R., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Noise Measurements Of A Prototype Tidal Energy Turbine Deveau, D., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Admiralty Inlet Post-Installation Environmental Monitoring Summary Polagye, B. April 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Fish
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
SNL-EFDC Model Application to Cobscook Bay, ME Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
San Juan Islands Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
US Department of Energy (DOE) National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Scaled Model Testing of DOE Reference Turbines Neary, V., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Tidal
Scoping Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia: A Research Synthesis & Priorities for Future Action Howell, A., Drake, C. January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Screening for Biofouling and Corrosion of Tidal Energy Device Materials: In-Situ Results for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Thomson, J. April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Skerries Tidal Stream Array: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Project Management Support Services July 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Environmental Statement ScottishPower Renewables July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
South Puget Sound Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 2010 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Subtidal Benthic Video and Benthic Infauna Survey and Intertidal Cable Crossing Survey MER Assessment Corporation January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Tacoma Narrows Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Ten Years of Experience at the La Rance Tidal Power Plant Andre, H. December 1978 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Testing of a Ducted Axial Flow Tidal Turbine Lokocz, T. August 2010 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Effect of Tidal Power Generation on Sediment Transport in Muskeget Channel University of Massachusetts January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Efficiency Of A Turbine In A Tidal Channel Garrett, C., Cummins, P. September 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Extractable Power From A Channel Linking A Bay To The Open Ocean Blanchfield, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Large-Scale Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
The Power Potential Of Tidal Currents In Channels Garrett, C., Cummins, P. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Practice of Comprehensive Silt Proof Measures in Tide Power Stations Liu, X., Fagong, L. September 2001 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
The Reality of Environmental Compliance: A Tidal Perspective Barr, S. April 2009 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
The Impact of Energy Extraction on Tidal Flow Development Couch, S., Bryden, I. July 2004 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal Current Power Development in Korea Lee, K., et al. November 2009 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Methodology for Estimating Tidal Current Energy Resources and Power Production by Tidal In-Stream Energy Conversion (TISEC) Devices Hagerman, G., Polagye, B. June 2006 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Using a Spatial Overlap Approach to Estimate the Risk of Collisions between Deep Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines: A Review of Potential Methods and Approaches Waggitt, J., Scott, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Method for Identification of Doppler Noise Levels in Turbulent Flow Measurements Dedicated to Tidal Energy Richard, J., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project ORPC Alaska February 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modelling the Far Field Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Tidal Farms - A Focus on Tidal Regime, Intertidal Zones and Flushing Nash, S., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Depth Averaged Currents San Juan Islands Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Tacoma Narrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Sequim Bay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Depth Averaged Water Levels for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
The Effects of a Severn Barrage on Wave Conditions in the Bristol Channel Fairley, I., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
West Islay Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal

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