Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 686
Title Authorsort ascending Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Technical Addendum RPS Group March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Measuring The Environmental Costs Of Tidal Power Plant Construction: A Choice Experiment Study Lee, J., Yoo, S. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Methodology for Tidal Turbine Representation in Ocean Circulation Model Roc, T., Conley, D., Greaves, D. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modeling Tidal Stream Energy Extraction and its Effects on Transport Processes in a Tidal Channel and Bay System Using a Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Model Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Modeling and Validation of a Cross Flow Turbine using Free Vortex Models and an improved 2D Lift Model Urbina, R., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Noise Measurements Of A Prototype Tidal Energy Turbine Deveau, D., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Admiralty Inlet Post-Installation Environmental Monitoring Summary Polagye, B. April 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Fish
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Physical Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
SNL-EFDC Model Application to Cobscook Bay, ME Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
San Juan Islands Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
US Department of Energy (DOE) National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Scaled Model Testing of DOE Reference Turbines Neary, V., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Scoping Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia: A Research Synthesis & Priorities for Future Action Howell, A., Drake, C. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Screening for Biofouling and Corrosion of Tidal Energy Device Materials: In-Situ Results for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Thomson, J. April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Skerries Tidal Stream Array: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Project Management Support Services July 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Environmental Statement ScottishPower Renewables July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
South Puget Sound Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Subtidal Benthic Video and Benthic Infauna Survey and Intertidal Cable Crossing Survey MER Assessment Corporation January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Tacoma Narrows Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Ten Years of Experience at the La Rance Tidal Power Plant Andre, H. December 1978 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Testing of a Ducted Axial Flow Tidal Turbine Lokocz, T. August 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Effect of Tidal Power Generation on Sediment Transport in Muskeget Channel University of Massachusetts January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Efficiency Of A Turbine In A Tidal Channel Garrett, C., Cummins, P. September 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Environmental Interactions of Tidal and Wave Energy Generation Devices Frid, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Extractable Power From A Channel Linking A Bay To The Open Ocean Blanchfield, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Large-Scale Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
The Power Potential Of Tidal Currents In Channels Garrett, C., Cummins, P. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Practice of Comprehensive Silt Proof Measures in Tide Power Stations Liu, X., Fagong, L. September 2001 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
The Reality of Environmental Compliance: A Tidal Perspective Barr, S. April 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
The Impact of Energy Extraction on Tidal Flow Development Couch, S., Bryden, I. July 2004 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Current Power Development in Korea Lee, K., et al. November 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Methodology for Estimating Tidal Current Energy Resources and Power Production by Tidal In-Stream Energy Conversion (TISEC) Devices Hagerman, G., Polagye, B. June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Using Adaptive Management To Resolve Uncertainties For Wave And Tidal Energy Projects Oram, C., Marriott, C. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Energy Its Emergence and the Challenges it Faces Ferro, B. May 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Using a Spatial Overlap Approach to Estimate the Risk of Collisions between Deep Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines: A Review of Potential Methods and Approaches Waggitt, J., Scott, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Birds
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Who Should be Afraid of a Tidal Turbine - The Good the Bad or the Ugly? Hammar, L., Ehnberg, J. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Fish
Method for Identification of Doppler Noise Levels in Turbulent Flow Measurements Dedicated to Tidal Energy Richard, J., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project ORPC Alaska February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modelling the Far Field Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Tidal Farms - A Focus on Tidal Regime, Intertidal Zones and Flushing Nash, S., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment
Depth Averaged Currents San Juan Islands Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Tacoma Narrows Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents at Sequim Bay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Currents for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Depth Averaged Water Levels for Puget Sound Pacific Northwest National Laboratory March 2012 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Effects of a Severn Barrage on Wave Conditions in the Bristol Channel Fairley, I., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
West Islay Tidal Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal

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