Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Simulating Current-Energy Converters: SNL-EFDC Model Development, Verification, and Parameter Estimation James, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States Dreyer, S., Polis, H., Jenkins, L. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Measuring waves and currents at the European marine energy centre tidal energy test site: Campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation Sellar, B., et al. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Remote Sensor Platforms for Environmental Monitoring at FORCE, Canada Anna Redden, Haley Viehman, and Melissa Oldreive June 2017 Blog Article Tidal
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise Marine Mammals
Impact assessment of marine current turbines on fish behavior using an experimental approach based on the similarity law Zhang, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Tidal Current Power Resources and Influence of Sea-Level Rise in the Coastal Waters of Kinmen Island, Taiwan Chen, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase MeyGen May 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tocardo InToTidal - EMEC May 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Potential Environmental Effects of Leading Edge Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Sudderth, E., et al. May 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Nautricity at EMEC April 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Tidal
Morphological Process of a Restored Estuary Downstream of a Tidal Barrier Kuang, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Identifying Relevant Scales of Variability for Monitoring Epifaunal Reef Communities at a Tidal Energy Extraction Site O'Carroll, J., Kennedy, R., Savidge, G. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Fairley, I., Karunarathna, H., Chatzirodou, A. January 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Nova Scotia Tidal Energy Atlas Acadia Tidal Energy Institute, TEKMap Consulting, FORCE January 2017 Website Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal Energy Scenario Analysis: Holistic Stakeholder Considerations for Sustainable Development McTiernan, K. January 2017 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal Energy Fish Impact: Method Development to Determine the Impact of Open Water Tidal Energy Converters on Fish Smit, M., et al. December 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Hydroacoustic Analysis of the Effects of a Tidal Power Turbine on Fishes Viehman, H. December 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Fish
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Strain Gauge Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I November 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress Gillibrand, P., Walters, R., McIlvenny, J. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Camera technology for monitoring marine biodiversity and human impact Bicknell, A., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pentland Firth MeyGen Harbour Seal Telemetry Data October 2016 Dataset Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
ScotRenewables SR2000 at EMEC October 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Are Larvae and other Planktonic Organisms at Risk from Tidal Energy Development? Andrea Copping August 2016 Blog Article Tidal
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Comparing nekton distributions at two tidal energy sites suggests potential for generic environmental monitoring Wiesebron, L., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Tidal Lagoons: Another Technique for Capturing Marine Renewable Energy Matthew Preisser July 2016 Blog Article Tidal
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
A French Application Case of Tidal Turbine Certification Paboeuf, S., Macadre, L., Sun, P. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment Yang, Z., Wang, T. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Tidal range technologies and state of the art in review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Nova Innovation - Shetland Tiday Array (Bluemull Sound) March 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Interaction between instream axial flow hydrokinetic turbines and uni-directional flow bedforms Hill, C., Musa, M., Guala, M. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Tidal Physical Environment
Nova Bluemull Sound - Appropriate Assessment Marine Scotland January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Noise
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates
Variability in Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, and Implications for Changes due to Tidal Power Extraction Ashall, L., Mulligan, R., Law, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy

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