Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 700
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Quantifying Benefits and Impacts of Fishing Exclusion Zones on Bio-Resources around Marine Renewable Energy Installations (QBEX) January 2012 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Race Rocks Tidal Energy Project September 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Ramsey Sound December 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Refinements to the EFDC model for predicting the hydro-environmental impacts of a barrage across the Severn Estuary Zhou, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Remote Sensor Platforms for Environmental Monitoring at FORCE, Canada Anna Redden, Haley Viehman, and Melissa Oldreive June 2017 Blog Article Tidal
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
RiCORE Project January 2015 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project Demonstration December 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project Pilot January 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
San Juan Islands Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
San Remo January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Scoping Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia: A Research Synthesis & Priorities for Future Action Howell, A., Drake, C. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
ScotRenewables SR2000 at EMEC October 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd SR250 Deployment Fall of Warness: Environmental Statement Volume II - Appendices Scotrenewables Tidal Power October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Screening for Biofouling and Corrosion of Tidal Energy Device Materials: In-Situ Results for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Thomson, J. April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seapower GEMSTAR System March 2012 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth and Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Sediment-Generated Noise and Bed Stress in a Tidal Channel Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise
Sediment-Laden Ice Measurements and Observations, and Implications for Potential Interactions of Ice and Large Woody Debris with Tidal Turbines in Minas Passage Sanderson, B., Redden, A., Broome, J. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Sensitivity of tidal lagoon and barrage hydrodynamic impacts and energy outputs to operational characteristics Angeloudis, A., Falconer, R. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Ecosystem
Severn Tidal Power Feasibility Study: Conclusions and Summary Report Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC) October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Shapinsay Sound Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Short Term Temporal Behavioural Responses in Pollack, Pollachius pollachius to Marine Tidal Turbine Devices; a Combined Video and ADCP Doppler Approach Broadhurst, M., Barr, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Sihwa Tidal Power Plant August 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Silt-Proof Measures: Following Analysis of Data Measured out of Baishakou Tidal Power Station, Measures were Proposed to Control Sediment in the Reservoir Yunchen, L. February 2004 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish Passing Through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines Romero-Gomez, P., Richmond, M. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Simulating Current-Energy Converters: SNL-EFDC Model Development, Verification, and Parameter Estimation James, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Skerries Tidal Stream Array: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Project Management Support Services July 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Slipstream Between Marine Current Turbine and Seabed Chen, L., Lam, W. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
SNL-EFDC Model Application to Cobscook Bay, ME Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Söderfors Project March 2013 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Cable Route Environmental Information ScottishPower Renewables May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array: Inter-tidal Survey of Potential Cable Routes Trendall, J. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Environmental Statement ScottishPower Renewables July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics
South Puget Sound Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Spatial and Temporal Benthic Species Assemblage Responses with a Deployed Marine Tidal Energy Device: A Small Scaled Study Broadhurst, M., Orme, C. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Stereo-Video Methodology for Quantitative Analysis of Fish-Turbine Interactions Hammar, L., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen) July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Savidge, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Sub-Mesoscale Flow Regime Modeling and the Influence of Energy Extraction at a Tidal Energy Site April 2012 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Subtidal Benthic Video and Benthic Infauna Survey and Intertidal Cable Crossing Survey MER Assessment Corporation January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
SuperGen Marine Energy Research October 2003 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing, Recreation
Swansea Tidal Lagoon Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tacoma Narrows Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Temporal Patterns in Minas Basin Intertidal Weir Fish Catches and Presence of Harbour Porpoise during April - August 2013 Baker, M., Reed, M., Redden, A. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Ten Years of Experience at the La Rance Tidal Power Plant Andre, H. December 1978 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Testing of a Ducted Axial Flow Tidal Turbine Lokocz, T. August 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Ebb and Flow of Tidal Barrage Development in Zhejiang Province, China Li, Y., Pan, D. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Ecological Impacts of Tidal Energy Development October 2008 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Ecology of Marine Tidal Race Environments and the Impact of Tidal Energy Development Broadhurst, M. January 2013 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The Effect of Tidal Power Generation on Sediment Transport in Muskeget Channel University of Massachusetts January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Effects of a Severn Barrage on Wave Conditions in the Bristol Channel Fairley, I., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The effects of array configuration on the hydro-environmental impacts of tidal turbines Fallon, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat

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