Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 690
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Environment Description for the EMEC Tidal Test Site Fall of Warness, Orkney Finn, M. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Appraisal (EA) for the Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Nautricity December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Development: Proceedings of a Scientific Workshop Polagye, B., et al. April 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Interactions of Tidal Lagoons: A Comparison of Industry Perspectives Mackinnon, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan: Shetland Tidal Array, Bluemull Sound McPherson, G. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Environmental Scoping Report: Brims Tidal Array OpenHydro, SSE Renewables August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating Effects of Tidal Power Projects and Climate Change on Threatened and Endangered Marine Species and Their Food Web Busch, S., Greene, C., Good, T. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Estimating the optimum size of a tidal array at a multi-inlet system considering environmental and performance constraints González-Gorbeña, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Estimation of Tidal Power Potential Walters, R., Hiles, C., Tarbotton, M. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
European Marine Energy Centre European Marine Energy Centre January 2003 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating biological characteristics of marine renewable energy sites for environmental monitoring Wiesebron, L. January 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal
Evaluating Statistical Models to Measure Environmental Change: A Tidal Turbine Case Study Linder, H., Horne, J. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Survival and Behavior of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., Giza, D., McMahon, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Fair Head Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data Informing Video Analysis June 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data of Seal Haul-Outs During the Breeding Season June 2010 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Wildlife Interactions May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Biofouling May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Far-field Dynamics Of Tidal Energy Extraction In Channel Networks Malte, P., Polagye, B. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Far-Field Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Minas Passage on Tidal Circulation in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine Using a Nested-Grid Coastal Circulation Model Hasegawa, D., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Far-Field Modelling of the Hydro-Environmental Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Fine-Scale Hydrodynamic Metrics Underlying Predator Occupancy Patterns in Tidal Stream Environments Lieber, L., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
First in situ Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Marine Mammals during Operation of a Tidal Turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales Malinka, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Fish in a Tidally Dynamic Region in Maine: Hydroacoustic Assessments in Relation to Tidal Power Development Viehman, H. May 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Fish Interactions with a Commercial-Scale Tidal Energy Device in the Natural Environment Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States Dreyer, S., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Floating Vs. Bottom-Fixed Turbines for Tidal Stream Energy: A Comparative Impact Assessment Sanchez, M., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Flocculation and Sediment Deposition in a Hypertidal Creek O'Laughlin, C., van Proosdij, D., Milligan, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Flow Modification in Tory Channel January 2010 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Flow Structure Determination in French Pass NZ January 2006 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Flow Variability in Cook Strait January 2009 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Flow, Water Column & Benthic Ecology 4D (FLOWBEC) January 2011 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Flow-Noise and Turbulence in Two Tidal Channels Bassett, C., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
FORCE Environmental Effects Monitoring Report September 2009 to January 2011 FORCE January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fri-El Seapower - Messina Project January 2007 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Legal and Policy
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) Environmental Assessment Addendum to the Report: Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project, Volumes 1 and 2 AECOM July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Future policy implications of tidal energy array interactions Waldman, S., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Fuzzy Impact Assessment on the Landscape: The Kobold Platform in the Strait of Messina Case Study Bergamascoa, A., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Geomorphological Analogues for Large Estuarine Engineering Projects: A Case Study of Barrages, Causeways and Tidal Energy Projects Morris, R. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance for Communities on the Development of Wave and Tidal Projects Edwards, C., et al. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Habitat characterization of a tidal energy site using an ROV: Overcoming difficulties in a harsh environment Greene, H. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates
Haishan Tidal Power Plant December 1975 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) monitoring at the FORCE Test Site, Canada Melissa Oldreive, Dom Tollit, and Daniel J. Hasselman (FORCE) March 2019 Blog Article Tidal
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk Hastie, G., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
HS1000 1 MW Tidal Turbine at EMEC: Supporting Documentation Xodus AURORA August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
HS1000 at EMEC December 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Human dimensions of tidal energy: A review of theories and frameworks Jenkins, L., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Hydroacoustic Analysis of the Effects of a Tidal Power Turbine on Fishes Viehman, H. December 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Hydrodynamic Effects of Kinetic Power Extraction by In-Stream Tidal Turbines Polagye, B. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel Fraser, S., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Hydrodynamic Impacts of Power Generation by Tidal Lagoons in the Bay of Fundy Cornett, A., Cousineau, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Hydrographic and Sediment Field Surveys January 2010 Research Study OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour Hammar, L., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Hydrokinetic Turbine Models in Complex Channel Topography: Local Scour, Sediment Transport and Device Performance Hill, C., et al. July 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
ICES SGWTE Report 2011: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2011 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment

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